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55 Cards in this Set

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Paradigm

Perspective or conceptual framework from within which a scientist operates


-no one paradigm sufficient to completely explain psychopathology

Paradigm: Neuroscience

Examines the contribution of brain structure and function to psychopathology


(Mental disorders are linked to aberrant processes in the brain.)

Three major components of the Neuroscience Paradigm

-Neurons and neurotransmitters


-Brain structure and function


-Neuroendocrine system

The HPA Axis of the Neuroendocrine System

-HPA axis involved in stress


(Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Adrenal cortex)

Hypothalamus

triggers release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRF)

Pituitary gland

releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Adrenal cortex

triggers release of cortisol, the stress hormone

Psychoneuroimmunology

the study of how psychological factors impact the immune system

Neuroscience Approaches to Treatment

-Psychoactive drugs alter neurotransmitter activity


-A neuroscience view does not preclude psychological interventions

These psychoactive drugs alter neurotransmitter activity

-Antidepressants


-Antipsychotics


-Anxiolytics (Treat Anxiety)

Reductionism

View that behavior can best be understood by reducing it to its basic biological components


(Ignores more complex views of behavior)

Freudian or psychoanalytic theory

-Human behavior determined by unconscious forces


-Psychopathology results from conflicts among these unconscious forces

Freud's Structures of the Mind: Id

-Unconscious


-Pleasure principle (immediate gratification)


-Libido (Energy of id)


Freud's Structure of the Mind: Ego

-Primarily conscious


-Reality principle (Attempt to satisfy id's demands within reality's constraints)



Freud's Structures of the Mind: Superego

-The conscience


-Develops as we incorporate parental and society values

The Id, Ego, and Superego continually in conflict

-Conflict generates anxiety


-Ego generates strategies to protect itself from anxiety (Defense mechanisms)



Defense mechanisms

Psychological maneuvers used to manage stress and anxiety

Repression

Keeping unacceptable impulses or wishes from conscious awareness

Denial

Not accepting a painful reality into conscious awareness

Projection

Attributing to someone else one's own unacceptable thoughts or feelings

Displacement

Redirecting emotional responses from their real target to someone else

Reaction Formation

Converting an unacceptable feeling into its opposite

Regression

Retreating to the behavioral patterns of an earlier stage of development

Rationalization

Offering acceptable reasons for an unacceptable action or attitude

Sublimation

Converting unacceptable aggressive or sexual impulses into socially valued behaviors

Goals of Psychoanalytic Therapy or Psychoanalysis

-To understand early-childhood experiences, particularly key (parental) relationships


- To understand patterns in current relationships

Psychoanalytic Techniques

-Free Association


-Analysis of Transference


-Interpretation

Free Association

A person tries to say whatever come to mind without censoring anything

Interpretation

The analyst points out the meaning of certain of a person's behaviors

Analysis of transference

The person responds to the analyst in ways that the person has previously responded to other important figure in his or her life, and the analyst helps the person understand and interpret these responses.

Childhood experiences help shape adult personality

There are unconscious influences on behavior

Implicit memory

The unconscious may reflect efficient information processing rather than being a repository for troubling material


(Everyone has aspects of experiences that we are not aware of, that has influence on our functioning)

John Watson (1878-1958)

Father of Behavior

Behaviorism

-Focus on observable behavior


-Emphasis on learning rather than thinking or innate tendencies


(Focus on the obvious behavior rather than what people are potentially thinking, or feeling)

(Behaviorism) Three types of learning

-Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)


-Operant Conditioning


-Modeling



Operant Conditioning (E. Thorndike, 1874-1949)

-Leaning through consequences


-Law of Effect (definition is on another card)

Law of Effect

Behavior is followed by satisfying consequences will be repeated; behavior that is followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged

Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner, 1904-1990)

Principle of Reinforcement


-Positive reinforcement


-Negative reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

Behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthened

Negative reinforcement

Behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened

Modeling

Learning by watching and imitating other's behaviors


-Can occur without reinforcement

Modeling Experiment done by Bandura & Melove (1968)

Modeling reduced children's fear of dogs

(Behavior Therapy) Behavior is reinforced by consequences

-Attention, praise


-Access to desirable objects or events


-Escape or avoidance of adverse events

(Behavior Therapy) Behavior Modification: To modify behavior, change the consequences

-Differential reinforcement


-Punishment

(Behavior Modification) Differential reinforcement

Reinforce desired behavior and apply extinction to undesirable behavior

(Behavior Therapy) Counter Conditioning

-Systematic Desensitization



Systematic Desensitization


(Behavior Therapy: Counter conditioning)

-Used to treat phobias and anxiety


-Relaxation plus exposure


-Combines deep muscle relaxation and gradual exposure to the feared condition or object


-Starts with minimal anxiety producing condition and gradually progresses to most feared

Limitations of Behavior Therapy


(Importance of Cognitions)

How we think or appraise a situation influences our feelings and behaviors

Cognitive Therapy


(Importance of Cognitions)

-Emphasizes that how people think about themselves and their experiences can be a major determinant of psychopathology


-Focuses on understanding maladaptive thoughts


-Changes cognitions to change feelings and behaviors

Beck's Cognitive Therapy (1976)

-Initially developed for depression


-Depression is caused by distorted thoughts ("Nothing ever goes right for me!)


-Information- Processing Bias


-Help patients recognized and change maladaptive thought patterns

Information- Processing Bias


(Beck's Cognitive Therapy (1976))

Attention, interpretation, and recall of negative and positive information biased in depression

(Current Paradigms:) Cognitive Behavioral

-Rooted in learning principles and cognitive science


- Combines behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology


-Integrates behavioral and cognitive approaches to treatment

(Cognitive Science) Cognition

Mental processes that include: Attention, perception, memory, interpretation, and reasoning



(Cognitive Science) Schema

Organized network of previously accumulated knowledge that is used to active interpret new information (A memory structure)



(Cognitive Science) Role of attention in psychopathology

Anxious individuals more likely to attend to threat or danger