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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the cell theory state?
The cell theory states that:
-all living things are made up of cells
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism
-new cells are produced from existing cells
What are the levels of cellular organization?
4)organ system
5) organism
What is the cell wall and what does it do?
outer layer in plant cell.
supports and protects.
What is the cell membrane and what does it do?
on an animal and plant cell. it regulates what enters and leaves the cell. supports and protects.
What is the nucleus of a cell and what does it do?
controls most of the cell processes and contains the DNA.
What is cytoplasm?
semi-liquid material that fills the cell
What is Mitochondria?
converts chemical energy that is in food into ATP. resperation occours here.
What is chloroplast?
only in plants!
turns energy from the sun into chemical energy for food. (aka photosynthesis occours in the chloroplast)
What is the Golgi Aparatus?
modifies, sorts and packages protiens ane other materials for endoplasmic reticulm for storage in the cell or secretion out of the cell.
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?
the site where lipids are assembled and along with protiens and other materials are exported out of the cell.
What is a Lysosome?
digests lipids, carbs, and protiens into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell; also involved in the breaking down of organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
What are some characteristics of a Prokaryotic cell?
-no nucleus
-big ribosomes
-smaller of the two
-only bacteria
-very small organelles
What are some characteristice of a Eukatyotic cell?
-has a nucleus
-large ribosomes
-larger of the two
-protists, fungi, plants, animals
-small organelles
What do marker protiens do?
detects foregin types of protien
What do receptor protiens do?
recieve the messages from the cell
What do channel protiens do?
used to move larger molecules into the cell.
What does the lipid bi-layer do?
delines the cell boundary and regulates what go in and out.
What do all cells need to survive?
water & nutirents
What is diffusion (aka passive transport)?
-requires no energy
-moves from high to low concentration
-moves with the concentration gradient
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water throught the cell membrane
What is facilitated diffusion?
when the molecules are helped through the membrane (with channel protiens)
Why does osmosis occur?
to maintain equilibrium.
What is active transport?
-requires energy
-low to high concentration
-against concentraion gradient
What is endocytosis?
cells bringing in large particles with membrane
What is exocytosis?
cells lettion out large particles with cell memebrane
What is phagocytosis?
food taken in
What is pinocytosis?
liquid taken in
What plasmolysis?
cell water loss (may be harmful)
What is a solvent?
the substance that the solute is dissolved into.
ex: saltwater ( water is the solvent to salt )
Wat is a solute?
the thing that is dissolved into the solvent.
ex: saltwater ( salt is the solute for the water)
In order to make a solution the number of mL of water and grams of solute should add up to _______.
ex: to make a 20% salt solution, mix 80 mL of water with 20 grams of salt.
In multicellullar organisms how is growth accomplished?
by cell division.
What is cell division?
occours when cells have reached a size large enough to ensure that the daughter cells will have all of the necessary materials and structures for survival.
how is the rate of exchange of materials entering and leaving the cell determined?
by the cell's surface area.
what kinds of factors cal keep a cell from dividing?
-reduction of food
-change in temperature
Frue or False: cells can never get too large.
False. If cells get too large they will die.