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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ferrous metals and alloys
-most useful of all metals
-iron base
-classified as carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels, tool and die steels, cast irons, cast steels
-steel = ferrous alloy of carbon and steel
applications of ferrous alloys
-sheet metal for automobiles, appliances, containers
-plates for boilers, ships, bridges
-i-beams, crankshafts, rail-road rails
-tools, dies, molds
-rods and wire
least expensive of all metals
carbon steels
what percent of structural components and and mechanical components do ferrous metals make up?
70% by weight
what percent of the average vehicle is made of steel?
60% by weight
the iron age
started in 1100 BC when ironworking began
3 basic materials used in iron and steelmaking
iron ore, limestone, coke
principle iron ores
taconite (black flintlike rock), hematite (iron-oxide mineral), limonite (iron-oxide containing water)
calcium carbonate, function is to remove impurities from molten iron, acts as a flux that causes impurities to melt at low temperature, combined with impurities and forms slag
to flow as a fluid
which is light, used in making cement, fertilizers, glass
an ore of calcium magnesium carbonate, also used as flux
charging the furnace
iron ore, limestone, and coke are dumped into the top of a blast furnace
blast furnace
large steel cylinder line with refractory (heat-resistant) brick, height of a 10-story building
-mixture of iron ore, limestone, and coke is melted at 1650 degrees, and blasted into the furnace
-oxygen and carbon make carbon monoxide which reacts with iron oxide to produce iron
pig iron
= hot metal, molten metal removed from blast furnace
origins of steel
china, japan around 600 to 800 AD
molten metal from blast furnace is placed into one what 3 types of furnaces?
open-hearth, electric, basic oxygen
open-hearth furnace
mostly replaced by electric furnaces, shallow hearth shape open directly to flames that melt the metal
electric furnace
source of heat is a continuous electric arc that is formed between the electrodes and charged metal, temp as high as 1925 degrees, 3 graphite electrodes
receptacle used for pouring and transferring molten metal
induction [furnaces]
electric furnaces for smaller quanties
large pot made of refractory material and surrounded with a copper coil through which AC is passed
basic-oxygen furnace
BOF, fastest and most common in steelmaking
1. 200 tons of molten pig iron and 90 tons of scrap are charged into a vessel
2. pure oxygen is blown into furnace for 20 minutes through a water-cooled lance (long tube)
3. fluxing agents (lime) are added through a chute
4. agitation of the oxygen refines the molten metal by an oxidation process which produces iron oxide
5. oxide reacts with carbon in the molten metal producing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
6. lance is retracted
7. slag is removed by tilting furnace
vacuum furnace
induction furnaces from which the air has been removed, produce high-quality steels