• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sound characteristics
1. Voicing (periodic sound)
2. Resonance (amplification)
3. Turbulence (aperiodic sound)
4. Transitions (blending)
3 sound sources of the "instrument"
1. Mouthpiece = Larynx
2. Tube = Vocal tract
3. Radiating source = Lips
Vocal tract functions
1. Sound amplifier
2. Turbulent sound generator → Resonates (amplifies) certain harmonics

→ So the vocal tract makes BIGGER and FULLER sounds
Segmentals v. suprasegmentals
Segmentals = score = phonemes
Suprasegmentals = the way we actually talk & play the score = phones
Range of human hearing
20 - 20,000 Hz
Range of speech
80/90 - 8000 Hz
Frequency of MOST speech sounds
Below 4000 Hz
Frequencies w/ MOST speech energy
Btwn 1000 - 2000 Hz
Above & below 4000 Hz
Above 4000 = most info for fricatives

Below 4000 = most of the acoustic energy = vowels
Amplitude of conversational speech
60-75 dB
Amplitude of dynamic range of speech
60 dB
Average fundamental frequencies of men, women, and children
Adult male average F0: 125 Hz

Adult female average F0: 250 Hz
(about an octave higher)

Child average: 275 - 300 Hz
(not much of a difference btwn prepubescent girls & boys)
Rates of speech
Average adult conversational speech: 3 syllables/sec

Very rapid, intelligible adult conversational speech: 5 syllables/sec

Slow adult convo speech: 2 syllables/sec
Source-Filter Model
1. Vocal folds create vocal buzz (Voice)
2. Vocal tract shapes the buzz (Resonances)
3. Output = what you hear
4 qualities of vocal buzz
glottal buzz = pseudo-complex periodic wave

1. Pitch
2. Loudness
3. Quality
4. Intonation???
a. Buzz from VFs = complex periodic tone generated by VF vibration made up of F0 + its harmonics
c. Run sound thru tube that is open at one end → the tube will selectively make some harmonics more powerful and others less powerful
= process of resonance = process of filtering
So resonance & amplification are determined by shape of the mouth, i.e. shape of mouth determines which harmonics are amplified

So 2 functions:
i. Amplifies sound (like a megaphone)
ii. Resonates (amplifies) certain harmonics

→ the vowel you hear
Vocal pitch
= F0

= Perceived highness and lowness of voice

Determined primarily by vocal fundamental freq (VF vibration)
Vocal loudness
= Amplitude

= Perceived loudness of voice

Determined by amplitude of vibration and speed/volume of air passing through the glottis
Vocal Quality
= Tonality or perceived pleasantness of the voice

Based on patterns of vocal fold vibration
→ Degree of “periodicity” of vocal fold vibration
Vocal "Richness"
“Fullness” or “brightness” of the voice

Based on number of harmonics perceived
Laryngeal cartilages
1. Cricoid (1)
2. Thyroid (1)
3. Arytenoid (2)
4. Epiglottis (1)
5. Vocal folds
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscle: Adductors
Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)


2 Oblique arytenoids = Interarytenoids
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscle: Abductors
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscle: Lengthener
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscle: Shortener

VF Layer 1
= Epithelium

Outer layer of VFs made up of squamous epithelial (skin) tissue

Covers all VFs

Lubricated mucous-type membrane keeps things smooth, frictionless --> impt since VFs bang into each other!

Can get Reinke’s edema in Reinke’s space btwn superficial layer & epithelial layer à swelling, bruising, fills w/liquid
VF Layer 2
= Superficial layer of lamina propria (aka Reinke’s space)

Made up of very flexible elastic/pliable/gelatinous tissue that’s less than 0.5mm thick

Fibers of this layer run in all different directions

Very gelatinous, floppy, bouncy --> loose connection btwn outer epithelial VFs & this layer

Soft! Shock absorbers as VFs hit each other (phonotrauma)
VF Layer 3
= Intermediate layer of lamina propria

Also made up of elastic tissue--> combo of gelatinous cells + fibers that are a lilll stiffer

1-2mm thick

Fibers only run anterior to posterior (parallel to VFs)

Stretchy, elastic! NOT gelatinous. Allows for stretching/elasticity of VFs, but a lil stiffer = more support & structure
VF Layer 4
= Deep layer of lamina propria
(Vocal ligament = layers 3 and 4 = the stiffer part, like a ligament)

Stiff thread-like collagen fibers that only run anterior to posterior

Provide structure & support for VFs

Provide source of attachment for next layer (muscle)
VF Layer 5
= Vocalis muscle = Thyrovocalis muscle
-->Thinner muscle

Originates @ thyroid notch, runs down to thyroid cartilage vertically, then courses backwards posteriorly & terminates @ vocal process of arytenoid (most forward process)
Attachment is to deep layers of lamina propria

When muscle contracts, it will tense VFs, tending to draw VFs toward midline --> shortens & stiffens them!
- Stiff things vibrate faster & also resist vibration a little
- Adds some tension to deep layers of VFs
VF Layer 6
= Thyroarytenoid = Thyromuscularis

Lateral to vocalis
Large relative to vocalis

Also originates @ thyroid notch but is just lateral to the vocalis.
Runs the length of VFs and terminates @ the arytenoids but @ the muscular process

- Typically thyroarytenoid muscle not usually, but can be, involved in vibration of VFs. However, when it contracts, it can do a couple things à can all be done voluntarily!
- Primary VF shortener (in opposition to cricothyroid)

Unimpeded thyroaryt muscle contraction (Isotonic):
It will get shorter. Anchored in back by arytenoids, so it brings the thyroid cartilage back --> shortens the VFs, they get shorter, thicker, less stiff --> pitch goes down

Opposed thyroaryt muscle contraction (Isometric)
- Muscles tense, but do not shorten
- VFs tense & stiffen --> pitch goes up
Vibration cycle: Attack phase
Bring VFs to abducted/semi-abducted position

Subglottic pressure buildup

Setting the VFs for sound
Vibration cycle: Opening phase
= When VFs just start opening

Open from the bottom up
…Until completely open!

Pressure blows VFs apart, pressure decreases as lips open

Bernoulli Effect → As air goes from from big space thru a little space to another big space, air speeds up in the little space, creating a drop in pressure btwn lips = a suction
Closing phase
Elasticity + suction from Bernoulli Effect pulls VFs back together

Pressure starts to build again
Closed phase
All VFs touching

Pressure is greatest

And the process begins again!
2 factors affecting VF vibration
Aerodynamic pressure?

Elasticity + Bernoulli working together