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10 Cards in this Set

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1. A 28-year-old woman is scheduled for a glucose tolerance test. She asks the nurse what results indicate diabetes mellitus. The nurse should respond that the minimum parameter for indication of diabetes mellitus is a 2-hour blood glucose level greater than:


A. 120 mg/dL.


B. 150 mg/dL.


C. 200 mg/dL.


D. 250 mg/dL.

Correct answer: C


A glucose tolerance test indicates a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus when the 2-hour blood glucose level is greater than 200 mg/dL. Confi rmation occurs when at least one subsequent result is greater than 200 mg/dL. Options A and B are incorrect because they’re below the minimum parameter; Option D is incorrect because it’s above the minimum parameter.

2. A patient is diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. The nurse should expect clinical signs and symptoms similar to:


A. hypovolemic shock.


B. sympathetic nervous system stimulation. C. benzodiazepine overdose.


D. Addison’s disease. .

Correct answer: B


Hyperthyroidism is a hypermetabolic state characterized by such signs and symptoms as anxiety, increased blood pressure, and tachycardia—all seen in sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Symptoms of hypovolemic shock (Option A), benzodiazepine overdose (Option C), and Addison’s disease (Option D) are more similar to a hypometabolic state

3. A patient with thyroid cancer undergoes a thyroidectomy. After surgery, the patient develops peripheral numbness and tingling and muscle twitching and spasms. The nurse should expect to administer:


A. a thyroid supplement.


B. an antispasmodic.


C. a barbiturate.


D. I.V. calcium gluconate.

Correct answer: D


Damage to the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy can cause hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone, leading to calcium defi ciency. Symptoms of calcium defi ciency include muscle spasms, numbness, and tingling. Treatment includes immediate I.V. administration of calcium gluconate. Thyroid supplementation (Option A) is necessary following thyroidectomy but isn’t specifi cally related to the identif i ed problem. An antispasmodic (Option B) doesn’t treat the problem. A barbiturate (Option C) isn’t indicated.

4. A patient with intractable asthma develops Cushing’s syndrome. Development of this complication can most likely be attributed to long-term or excessive use of:


A. prednisone.


B. theophylline.


C. metaproterenol (Alupent).


D. cromolyn (Intal).

Correct answer: A


Cushing’s syndrome results from long-term or excessive use of a glucocorticoid such as prednisone. Theophylline (Option B), metaproterenol (Option C), and cromolyn (Option D) don’t cause Cushing’s syndrome.

5. Which nursing diagnosis is most likely for a patient with an acute episode of diabetes insipidus?


A. Imbalanced nutrition: More than body requirements


B. Deficient fl uid volume


C. Impaired gas exchange


D. Ineffective tissue perfusion: Cardiopulmonary

Correct answer: B


Diabetes insipidus causes a pronounced loss of intravascular volume; therefore, the most prominent risk to the patient is defi cient fl uid volume. The patient is at risk for imbalanced nutrition, impaired gas exchange, and ineffective tissue perfusion (Options A, C, and D), but these risks stem from the defi cient fl uid volume.

6. A patient presents with diaphoresis, palpitations, jitters, and tachycardia approximately 1½ hours after taking his regular morning insulin. Which treatment option is appropriate for this patient?


A. Blood glucose level monitoring and carbohydrate administration


B. Nitroglycerin administration and ECG


C. Pulse oximetry monitoring and oxygen therapy


D. Salt restriction, diuretic administration, and paracentesis

Correct answer: A


The patient is experiencing signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. It’s appropriate to monitor his blood glucose level and administer carbohydrates to increase his blood glucose level. Nitroglycerin administration and ECG (Option B) are treatments for MI. Monitoring the patient’s pulse oximetry and providing oxygen therapy (Option C) won’t increase the patient’s blood glucose level. Salt restriction, diuretic administration, and paracentesis (Option D) are treatments for ascites.

7. When teaching a newly diagnosed diabetic patient about diet and exercise, the nurse should teach the patient how to:


A. use fiber laxatives and bulk-forming agents.


B. manage fluids, proteins, and electrolytes. C. reduce calorie intake before exercising. D. manage caloric goals, diet, and physical activity.

Correct answer: D


Diabetic patients must be taught to manage caloric goals, diet, and physical activity. Fiber laxatives and bulk-forming agents (Option A) are treatments for constipation. Managing fl uids, proteins, and electrolytes (Option B) is important for a patient with acute renal failure. The diabetic patient may need additional calories—not reduced calories (Option C)—before exercising.

8. A 52-year-old patient reports weight gain and fatigue. On assessment, her vital signs are a blood pressure of 120/74 mm Hg, a pulse rate of 52 beats/minute, a respiratory rate of 20 breaths/minute, and a temperature of 98° F (36.7° C). Laboratory results show low T4 and T3 levels. The nurse knows these signs and symptoms are associated with which condition?


A. Tetany


B. Hypothyroidism


C. Hyperthyroidism


D. Hypokalemia

Correct answer: B


Weight gain, fatigue, and a slow pulse rate, along with decreased levels of T3 and T4— thyroid hormones that affect growth and development as well as metabolic rate–indicate hypothyroidism. Tetany (Option A) causes low calcium levels. Hyperthyroidism (Option C) results in increased levels of the T3 and T4. Hypokalemia (Option D) is defi ned as a low potassium level.

9. A patient is admitted with a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism. Which of the following signs would the nurse expect to fi nd?


A. Bulging eyes


B. Renal calculi


C. Weight gain


D. Weight loss

Correct answer: B


Hyperparathyroidism is overproduction of parathyroid hormone, characterized by bone calcifi cation or renal calculi. Bulging eyes (Option A) and weight loss (Option D) are signs of hyperthyroidism, and weight gain (Option C) is a sign of hypothyroidism.

10. A 37-year-old patient complains of muscle weakness, anorexia, and darkening of his skin. The nurse reviews his laboratory data and notes fi ndings of low serum sodium and high serum potassium levels. The nurse recognizes that these signs and symptoms are associated with which condition?


A. Addison’s disease


B. Cushing’s syndrome


C. Diabetes insipidus


D. Thyroid storm

Correct answer: A


The clinical picture of Addison’s disease includes muscle weakness, anorexia, darkening of the skin’s pigmentation, and low sodium and high potassium levels. Cushing’s syndrome (Option B) causes obesity, “buffalo hump,” “moon face,” and thin extremities. Signs of diabetes insipidus (Option C) include excretion of large volumes of dilute urine, leading to hypernatremia and dehydration. Thyroid storm (Option D) can occur with severe hyperthyroidism.