Urbanization in the Kurdistan Region Essay

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Introduction Urbanization: The process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary). Sustainable development: The ability of an activity or development to continue in the long term without undermining that part of the environment which sustains it (Scottish Natural Heritage, 1993). The process of urbanization and the population growth across the world has been increasing over the last 40 years, and it is expected to

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Air Pollution
One of the problems of urbanization within the KRG region is air pollution. One of the factors of air pollution is high number of cars and industries (Thisdell, D. 1993). The second factor is car and bus fumes, as they have old and inefficient engines and low quality petrol (Bilham-Boult, A., Blades, H., Hancock, J., Keeling, W. & Ridout, M. 1999). The reason for high numbers of cars is because of the immigration of the people to 3 main cities of Kurdistan, an increase in the population in these cities, causes a rise in the number of cars. Almost every house has a car in Erbil. However; there are people who are not well educated, each member in their family must have a car from the eldest to the youngest. So, the more there is cars the more humans are exposed to the polluted air. In addition, almost all the employees of governments' offices abuse the cars for their own personal purposes; they use these cars even in the night also this contributes to the pollution of the air. Another thing is that the KRG region has a very poor public transportation. Furthermore, not all of the people use public transportation because it is not so healthy most of the public transport vehicles are old and dirty. Also some people do not use it because of their mentality. Especially high class people never use buses because they cannot accept the idea to
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