The governing body in Japan, during the nineteenth century, went from leadership under the Tokugawa dynasty to leadership under the leaders of the Meiji restoration. This shift of power caused the end of Feudal Japan and the beginning of modernized Japan. The Tokugawa dynasty fell because of foreign encroachment, Tokugawa political and economic instability, and the role changes and actions of Japan's daimyo and samurais. These stresses proved that, a state of affairs was likely to bring about the downfall of dynasty.
No civil war, battle, or event that had taken place in Japan prior to July 14, 1853 would cause Japan to change as drastically as it would after that day. On July 14, 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States Navy
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When Perry returned months with more ships, the shogun government was left with no options. The Japanese government did everything they could to delay granting President Fillmore's request. But Perry pointed out politely that if he went home without accomplishing the purposes of his mission, this government would probably send an even larger squadron to Japan. Thus, On March 31, 1856, The Treaty of Kanagawa was signed. This treaty would fulfil all the requests that President Fillmore had demanded of Japan; the promise of a consul to arrange trade between the United States and Japan later. With approval granted to the Untied States, many European countries requested similar agreements which could not be disapproved. The flood gates into Japan were opened. Soon after, some Bakufu officials, realizing that the Western powers were far in advance of Japan in military, economic, and technological affairs, concluded that Japan could no longer refuse to set up full diplomatic relation with foreign powers. When Townsend Harris, the first American Ambassador to Japan, met with the Japanese government again to discuss further trade, the Prince of Bitchiu said in result of the president’s letter, “pleased with the letter sent with the Ambassador from a far-distant country, and likewise