The First Injection Event: Heroin, Methamphetamine, Cocaine, and Ketamine Initiates”

2651 Words 11 Pages
Many researchers study prevalence and risk factors but what are the reasons for people to use drugs and which drugs are used first? In a study by Lankenau, Wagner, Jackson Bloom, Sanders, Hathazi and Shin, conducted between 2004 and 2005, young injection users were interviewed about their first injected drug. The researchers attempted to find the relationship between certain characteristics, the risk behaviors at initiation, and future drug-using trajectories. The drugs that were found to be the most common were ketamine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin.
The study had 222 subjects whose age ranged from 16 to 29. The participants were chosen from public places in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. Each participant had injected
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Although the researchers found these differences, they did not investigate them further which this paper will do.
Ketamine is an abbreviation of ketamine hydrochloride. Ketamine is used as a medication (analgesic narcotic with a blood pressure and heard rate increasing effect) in emergency medicine and veterinary science (Kohrs & Durieux, 1998). Ketamine is sold as a white powder which is odorless, but it is also available as a clear liquid. It can be taken intranasal or swallowed and is often injected intramuscularly. The onset of effect depends on the form of consumption: after injection 1-2 minutes, after sniffing a few minutes and after swallowing 15 to 20 minutes. The duration ranges from one to two hours. Ketamine affects many neurotransmitters and receptors; therefore, there are many different effects. Generally, it blocks the transmission of impulses in the brain, hence the analgesic and soporific effect, but without interfering with vital functions. At low doses, a condition occurs that is similar to being drunk. At higher doses one loses its senses: taste and smell, music can only be heard partly, and pain is reduced. The overall perception is disturbed and communication becomes difficult. Emotions are no longer perceived and actions cannot be properly controlled. Ultimately, it

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