Overview Of The West Nile Virus Essay

1953 Words 8 Pages
CRAM Exclusive
Essay Sample
Introduction: West Nile Virus, belong to family Flaviridae is a virus transferred by mosquitoes which was first identified in Uganda in 1937 (2). It was perceived as public health threat with epidemics of fever and encephalitis in the Middle East in the 1950’s (3). Since then there has been many sporadic outbreak in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Middle East (3). The first human cases of WNV disease in the Western Hemisphere were detected in New York City in 1999(1 ). By the end of 2005, virus has a

middle of document…

Need of Surveillance-

There are variety of parameters that influence the WNV outbreak like - urban habitats in Northeast, agricultural habitats in the western United States, rural irrigated landscapes, increased temperature, specific precipitation patterns, several socioeconomic factors such as housing age and community drainage patterns, per capita income, and neglected swimming pool density. All these parameters are associated with WNV but a clear long time prediction model for WNV is still lacking. So, to understand and predict the now unpredictable nature of WNV, necessitates the need of WNV surveillance.

There are two different complimentary aspects of the WNV surveillance –

1) Epidemiological surveillance - quantify human disease burden with emphasis on seasonal, geographic, and demographic patterns in human morbidity and mortality.

2) Environmental surveillance – emphasizes local WNV activity in vectors and non-human vertebrate hosts before epidemic activity affecting humans.

Using human case surveillance by itself is insufficient for predicting outbreaks. It can take several weeks, from the time the person get infected to actual diagnosis of the disease and to finally report the case. Resulting in time gap and thus the human case reports lag well behind from the time
CRAM Exclusive

Related Documents

  • Essay West Nile Virus

    commerce, human demographics and behavior, and technology and industry. One emerging infectious disease that has been re-emerging is the West Nile Virus. Disease and Pathology West Nile virus is an emerging infectious disease because it keeps re-emerging; showing an increase in incidence and it has spread to different geographic areas by modern transportation. This virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda, Africa and it has existed in Africa and the Middle East for decades, if not centuries. But

    Words: 1118 - Pages: 5
  • Introduction of the West Nile Virus to North America Essay

    Introduction of the West Nile Virus to North America A West Nile (WN) virus was first isolated in 1937 from the peripheral blood of a woman in the West Nile province of Uganda in Central Africa. Since then, WN viruses have been reported from North Africa (Egypt, Israel), East, Central, and South Africa, Asia (India, Pakistan), Borneo, Europe (Cyprus, France, Romania) and, most recently, the northeastern USA. Tests for antibody to WN suggest it has also been present in Thailand, the Philippines

    Words: 2531 - Pages: 11
  • Chikungunya and Zika Virus Essay

    Europe’s journal on infectious disease epidemiolog y, prevention and control Special edition: Chikungunya and Zika virus October 2014 Featuring • Spread of chikungunya from the Caribbean to mainland Central and South America: a greater risk of spillover in Europe? • Aspects of Zika virus transmission • Cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning to Spain from Haiti or Dominican Republic, April-June 2014 www.eurosurveillance.org Editorial team Editorial advisors

    Words: 38077 - Pages: 153
  • Love Your Virus Essay

    just crashed due to a virus. And no it's not West Nile, Small Poxs or Polio. Computer viruses have been aroud for many years, since about 1986. Who invented computer viruses? Where were they created? Can you create them? All of these questions will be answered, as well as a short timeline of virus history and highlight of some recent major viruses. First, What is a computer virus? And how do you protect yourself from them? Then, A short timeline of virus' history. And, finally

    Words: 1039 - Pages: 5
  • The Importance of the Nile to Ancient Egypt Essay

    The Nile played an important role in the life of the ancient Egyptians. It makes life in the deserts of Egypt possible. It provided drinking water, a source of irrigation for crops, and most importantly the fertile soil used to grow crops. Without the Nile River it would have been difficult for Egyptian civilizations to survive. The Nile provided the crucial resources needed by a growing civilization. It caused all the ancient Egyptian communities to develop alongside the river. It also created a

    Words: 1317 - Pages: 6
  • Blue Nile Essay

    BLUE NILE RESEARCH & APPLICATION 5-20 Total points = 58/60 1. What is Blue Nile’s strategy in the marketplace? Does the company rely primarily on a customer intimacy, operational excellence, or product leadership customer value proposition? What evidence from the 10-K supports your conclusion? After reading through the 10-K statement for Blue Nile, it is apparent that they believe in a mix of customer intimacy, operational excellence and product leadership customer value proposition

    Words: 2281 - Pages: 10
  • Influenza Virus Essay

    lurks silently and patiently awaiting his next victim. He does not discriminate based on race, sex, or age, however; the youngest and eldest usually pay a higher price. This perpetrator who remains faceless is known as the influenza virus. The influenza virus commonly known as the flu is a contagious viral infection that invades its victim's body via the nose and mouth affecting the respiratory system of the individual. It spreads by respiratory droplets through coughing and sneezing.

    Words: 668 - Pages: 3
  • Gke1 Task 1 Nile River Essay

    A. The longest river in the world at over 4,100 miles in length, the Nile River separated ancient Egypt into two regions, Upper to the south and Lower Egypt to the north. A bit confusing, on a map, but the names came from the flow of the Nile River. Most Ancient Egyptians lived near the river for the benefits the area provided; transportation, food, water and excellent soil for growing food. The soil along the river, known as the Black Land, is rich and fertile and provides excellent conditions

    Words: 843 - Pages: 4
  • Hiv: a Retrospective Overview Essay

    Edwin Hill Professor Skolnik English 1280-05 Final Research Paper HIV: Introspective Overview What is HIV? Figure 1 HIV 1 virus electron micrograph, (Goldsmith) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus of the lentivirus genus. HIV attacks the immune system by invading and destroying certain white blood cells such as helper T cells (mainly CD4+ T cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. The infection and destruction of the CD4+ T cells takes place through three

    Words: 2089 - Pages: 9
  • Essay on Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Ebola Virus Species

    with Ebola virus, named after a river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) in Africa, where it was first recognized. The virus is one of two members of a family of RNA viruses called the Filoviridae. There are five identified subtypes of Ebola virus. Four of the five have caused disease in humans: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast and Ebola-Bundibugyo. The fifth, Ebola-Reston, has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans. Where is Ebola virus found in nature

    Words: 2366 - Pages: 10