World War 2 Study Guide

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I. Before the war
A. Italy
1. Benito Mussolini was the leader of the fascist group in Italy.
2. Fascism is a revolt against democratic values.
3. This was the world’s first totalitarian dictatorship.
B. Germany
1. The Treaty of Versailles (which was instituted following World War I) placed harsh conditions on Germany to stop them from rising up in war again.
2. Desperation and starvation caused many problems among the German people.
3. Adolf Hitler led the people with promises of returning Germany to greatness. He planned to extend German rule over Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia, and Austria.
4. In 1933, Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany. Shortly after the election, Hitler disbanded the Reichstag (the German parliament).
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The Allied troops were outnumbered ten to one. On Christmas Day, 1941, Hong Kong surrendered to Japan. Every Canadian soldier was either killed or taken captive. For the next three and a half years, the captured soldiers were used as slave labourers and were very poorly treated.

V. The war in Europe (1942-1945)
A. The Battle of Dieppe
1. In August of 1942, almost five thousand Canadian troops along with just over a thousand other Allied troops were chosen for a raid on the French port of Dieppe.
2. The defeat of Canadian soldiers began just as the attack began. Germans fired on the landing crafts from high above. Many Canadians died before even reaching the beach. Only a few soldiers made it to the town of Dieppe, where they fought the Germans in very close combat.
3. Of the almost 5,000 Canadians who sailed to Dieppe, 907 died and more than 500 were wounded. Almost 2,000 were captured and became prisoners of war.
B. Canadians were also involved in attacks on Sicily and Italy.
1. On December of 1943, Canadian soldiers captured the city of Orotona in Italy. For weeks afterward, a sign stood in Orotona in Italy that read, “A West Canadian Town.” The sign was left by proud Canadian
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By June of 1944, the Allies had succeeded in capturing Rome. Canadian forces continued to fight in Italy until February of 1945.
C. D-Day and the Normandy Invasion
1. More than thirty thousand Canadian troops were involved in D-Day, the day scheduled for the Allied invasion of Europe.
2. American forces were to attack at the western end of Normandy Beach, and British and Canadian troops were to land farther to the east.
3. The Third Canadian Division was to land with the first wave of attackers in an area called Juno Beach. Canadian bomber crews defended the beach from above.
4. At 6 am, the bombardment began. Within three hours, the German defenses at Juno Beach had be shattered and Canada held control of the beach.
5. Despite many problems, the invasion was a success. By the end of the day more than 155,000 soldiers, 6,000 vehicles, and 3,600 tons of supplies had been landed in France.
6. Canadians were within five kilometres of the city of Caen, farther inland than any other Allied troops. After a month of fighting, Caen was officially under Canadian control.

VI. Ending the war
A. In April of 1945, Hitler committed

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