Women 's Athletics And Title Ix Essay example

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Men’s Athletics and Title IX Title IX passed in 1972 as part of the Education Amendments of 1972 and it protects both women and men from discrimination based on sex. The 1972 version of Title IX does not mention sports or athletics once (Goldman, 2012). In 1975, the update to Title IX prohibited sex discrimination of athletes at educational institutions who received federal funding (Owoc, n.d.). The update required that any athlete competing in interscholastic, club, intercollegiate, and intramural activity should receive equal opportunity no matter the sex (United States Education Amendments, 1972). Following the passing of the 1975 update, many institutions began to comply and offer equal opportunity for female athletes; however, some argue men’s athletics took a huge step back (Owoc, n.d.). Since 1981, universities have canceled more than 2,000 men’s athletics teams to remain in compliance with the proportionality requirement of Title IX. Since the inclusion of equal opportunity in athletics, many proposed amendments have tried to exclude athletics from Title IX, but all have failed. In 1975 and 1977, two amendments tried to exclude sports that were income generating. Athletics had a small opening with the case Grove City College v. Bell (1984), which ruled that Title IX should only have power over those programs that receive federal funding directly. In 1988, the Civil Rights Restoration Act overruled Grove City College v. Bell and stated Title IX was to apply to all…

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