What Muscles Are Involved in Dorsiflexion of the Foot and What Changes Occur in the Lower Foot

1020 Words Sep 1st, 2015 5 Pages
When a patient dorsiflexes the foot, what muscles are involved and what changes occur in the lower limb

Word count 890 excluding references

In this essay the author will take a brief look at the structure of the foot and then describe the muscles involved in dorsiflexion of the foot and the changes that occur in the lower limb.
The foot can be divided in to three parts; the hindfoot, midfoot and the forefoot. The hind foot is composed of the talus (ankle bone), the calcaneus (heel bone) the tibia and the fibula, the long bones in the lower leg. The tibia and fibula are connected to the top of the talus to form the ankle. The calcaneus is connected to the talus at the subtalar joint. The calcaneus is the largest bone in the foot and
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Movements are produced by muscles in the leg and long tendons that cross the ankle and the muscles in the foot.
In dorsiflexion of the foot there are three anterior skeletal muscles responsible for this movement. The tibialis anterior, which is the prime mover also known as the agonist, in dorsiflexion of the foot. The extensor hallucis longus and the extensor digitorm longus muscles are synergists or muscles that assist the prime mover in its role.
The tibialis anterior (The prime mover) originates in the proximal two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia and the interosseous membrane and is inserted at the medial and plantar aspects of the medial cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal. The extensor halluces longus (synergist) originates as a muscle in the middle section of the fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane and ends as a tendon is inserted at the dorsal base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. It is the prime mover in dorsiflexion of the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot. The extensor digitorum longus (synergist) originates in the lateral area of the tibia, proximal two-thirds of the medial surface of the fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane. It splits in to four tendons that attach to the proximal base of the dorsal surface of the middle and distal phalanges. This muscle is the prime mover in dorsiflexion of the toes but assists

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