Understanding The Pathophysiology Of Asthma Essay

1645 Words Sep 7th, 2016 7 Pages
Asthma is characterized by the pathological changes in the submucosal glands, the increase of smooth muscle composition and hardening of the lamina reticularis; due to the recurrent inflammation and overproduction of mucus in the airways (Holgate & Sly, 2014). The inflammatory response is highly associated with the clinical symptoms of wheezing, coughing, short of breath and chest tightness (Cosio, Rosado & Rossi, 2012). The objectives of this essay is to discuss the pathophysiology of asthma, outline the current acute asthma management in Australia and then lastly discuss the Nurses role in Sara’s scenario with the use of a management plan.

Background

Asthma is triggered by common risk factors such as:

• Environmental exposures (e.g. tobacco smoking or exposure)
• Toxins (e.g. pollutants in the air)
• viral infections (e.g. respiratory infections)
• allergens (e.g. dust)
• And intrinsic factors: such as stress, exercise and dietary changes (Mims, 2015).

The exposure to environmental triggers, increases production of mucus due to the inflammatory and immunological responses. The immunologic antibody IgE attaches itself to the trigger, therefore a reaction signals the eosinophils, neutrophils and T lymphocytes in the circulation to the airways (Holgate & Sly, 2014). In conjunction, the alveolar macrophages and mast cells, are mediators that trigger an allergic response to environmental triggers, which live in the alveoli (Holgate & Sly, 2014). The immunologic antibody…

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