Non Dependent Diabetes Research Paper

Type I Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a chronic illness where the body is unable to produce insulin due to an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Insufficient amount of insulin in the blood means inadequate amounts of glucose leading to high blood sugar level. NIDDM is a genetic disease that usually occurs in children or young adults, there is no cure found yet, but it can be managed. Symptoms may include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dry skin, losing weight, blurry eyesight, and hyperglycemia. Type II Insulin Dependent Diabetes (IDDM) is also a chronic disease due to the inadequate amount of insulin production or insulin resistance has occurred. In this case, the cells fail to respond to insulin …show more content…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute rapid complication caused by hyperglycemia. Body fat starts to break down for energy resulting in a build-up of ketones in the blood and urine. Meanwhile, the ketones are like poison in the body causing it more acidic, which would lead to coma or death. Risk factors include a missed or reduced dose of insulin, physical or emotional stress, illness, infection, or untreated type I diabetes. Clinical manifestations appear polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, abdominal pain, blurred vision, orthostatic hypotension, fruity breath, Kussmaul respirations, metabolic acidosis, and a change in mental status. The effective diagnostic test would be ordered to determine DKA; the glucose levels would be greater than 300 mg/dL, an increase in sodium, BUN, creatinine, and a decrease in potassium. Ketones would be present in serum and urine with a high serum osmolarity level and serum pH would be less than 7.3 leading to metabolic acidosis. The client would be ordered intravenous fluids to treat dehydration, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance. Another complication due to hyperglycemia is named, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) or hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome. This condition is life threatening and occurs steadily over days but can lead to coma and death if untreated. HHS advances to an alteration of sensorium affected by insulin resistance resulting in a destruction of fluids and electrolytes. Unlike DKA, the ketones are absent in this case and do lead to dehydration as well. Risk factors consist of older adults who have the insufficient amount of fluid intake, have decreased kidney function, and have a residual of insulin secretion, sepsis, MI, and some medications. DKA and HHS share some similar symptoms, laboratory test, and treatment. Symptoms carry polyuria, polydipsia, blurred vision, etc. HHS also gets

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