Turbine Model

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[Fig. 23 Model] [fig. 24 Mechanism of Model]
4.1 Working of the model:
The working of this tank and pipe arrangement for producing electricity is very simple. There are a large amount of water stored in tank water is flow through the pipe. These water flow through numbers of pipes. The water flow with different energy like kinetic energy, potential energy, pressure energy, gravitational energy therefore whenever water flow through simple pipe lot of energy is wasted. So when the water flow through pipe with forces the turbine which attached in pipe rotate in a particular direction. Due to this rotation of the turbine the shaft the sprocket will rotate and the rotational energy from one shaft is
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Runner and transfers its kinetic energy to the bucket’s wheel. The general formula of any hydro system is:
P = ƞ ƍ g Q H
Efficiency of turbine η
Density of fluid is ρ.
Mass flow rate is Q.
Height of the tank is H is effective head and it will be varies.
Here Mass flow rate of water through pipe is given by:
Q=A×V1 and
Where A is Cross section area of pipe at inlet which is derived by
A = π/4 D^2
Where D is diameter of pipe is.
For an impulse turbine of a Pelton-wheel type, the mechanical power can be changed by means of changing ƞ, Q, and H inputs because and g and ƍ are constant. Velocity of water at which water strikes with pelton wheel is
V1= Cd√2gHm/s
Cd is co-efficient of discharge which is different for all type of pipes
For different effective head H V=Cd√2gH
Let us consider some effective head and the velocity of water at that head and Cdis taken as 0.97 H =30 V=0.97√(2×9.8×30) V=23.5212 m/s
H = 28 V=0.97√(2×9.8×28) V = 22.7236 m/s
H = 26 V=0.97√(2×9.8×26) V = 21.8970 m/s
H = 24 V=0.97√(2×9.8×24) V = 21.0380 m/s
H = 22 V=0.97√(2×9.8×22) V = 20.1423

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