Traditional Push-Pull Factors To Migration
But recently, it seems that push factors seem to be increasingly more powerful.
In other words, if the wage differential between the host and origin place exceeds the costs of migration, the probability of migration will increase. Costs of migration include monetary costs (as transportation and new goods) as well as physical costs (as the rupture from one‘s family, friends and familiar places) (Borjas, 1999).
According to NSS 64th round the major reason behind male migration from rural to urban areas and rural to rural areas is search of better employment. Male members migrate in search of better job opportunities followed by other reasons which constitute parental movement or marriage.
2.2.3 Where migrants …show more content…
Also, individuals tend to migrate to places where their skills abilities and experiences have the highest returns. As mentioned in the previous section, the selectivity issue appears also from the host perspective. The unskilled individuals are more likely to migrate to places where the income distribution is equal and skilled individuals are more likely to migrate to the areas with a more unequal earnings .Also, individuals tend to migrate to places where the migration costs can be reduced – whether by common language or by the existence of a Diaspora, friends or family, also known as the network effect (Pedersen et al, 2009). Earlier studies reported that, an estimated 30,000 labourers migrate from Bolangir District in western Orissa every year (Deshingkar et.al 2008). The remote drought-prone and forested tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh show similarly high levels of out-migration. In the tribal districts of southern Madhya Pradesh, 65% of households included migrants. In Jharkhand, one study reported that, of twelve villages found that one-third of the households had at least one member migration. There are extremely high rates of migration among tribal from southern Rajasthan who migrate to Gujarat to work in seed cotton farms and textile markets. The incidence of migration was clearly growing in the area as a few years later another study in the