Malmgren & Meisel conducted a study in 2004 to examine the service delivery and risk factors for emotional and behavioral disorderd youth who were served by one jurisdiction’s child welfare, juvenile justice, and special education agencies. The researcher mentioned in the research paper that emotional and behavioral disorders may make children more vulnerable to engaging in delinquent behavior than nondisabled peers, and child-serving institutions are more likely to identify youth with disabilities as delinquent and refer them to juvenile justice system. Sample for this study were students who received special-education services for EBD in both public and nonpublic schools in the participanting school district. The final sample size of this study was 93. The result indicated that disabled adolescents who are involved with the child welfare, juvenile justice, and special-education systems experience multiple risk factors throughout childhood. Risk factors include child maltreatment academic and behaviral problems, high rates of mobility, and parental incarceration are associated with negative school and community outcome and could affect adulthood.
In a review paper, Vig & Kaminer (2002) tried to explore the interactive influences of maltreatment and disablilities on children’s development and to provide suggestions about what could benefit developmental outcomes. The auther mentioned a study of 86 children with cerebral salsy, from age 6 months to 18, and abuse was