The Second Great Awakening

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The Second Great Awakening
This religious revival movement explored the role of ideas, beliefs and cultures that played into shaping the United States. Beginning in the 1790s, conservative theologians tried to fight the spread of religious rationalism and church establishments tried to revitalize their organizations. The Second Great Awakening gained momentum by 1800 and membership rose quickly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was essentially a response to religious skepticism that challenged many ecclesiastical traditions. The American Revolution weakened traditional forms of religious practice by detaching churches from government and by elevating ideas of individual liberty and reason. “New
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“Rational” religions such as Deism, “Universalism” and “Unitarianism” emerged as the first dissenting views in which they rejected the Calvinist belief in predestination and the idea of the Trinity. To the latter two of the three, Jesus was only a great religious teacher, not the son of God. The effects of the Second Great Awakening included the increase of religious piety and the growth of different religious sects. It also helped create tolerance among people of different branches of protestantism. The Second Great Awakening would also prove to be much more effective and change the lives of many African Americans and Native Americans. Many African American men became preachers and stood as important figures in the slave community. It also inspired a new spirit of rebellion a would …show more content…
Much of the social mobility in the 19th century occurred in the working class. A few workers would manage to get from poverty to riches and a much larger number of workers managed to move at least one notch up the ladder. More common was the geographic mobility that, although expensive and costly to working class families or individuals, allowed people to settle in the western uncultivated lands in the 1840s and 1850s. Working class citizens were also given more opportunity in politics which made many of these members of society feel like an important part of the community. The significant amount of mobility helped limit discontent within the working class. One important cause for the mobility was the increasing inequality of wealth within industrial societies. For example, in Boston in 1845, 4 percent of the citizens are estimated to have owned more than 65 percent of the wealth. The extent and character of wealth were changing in response to the commercial revolution leaving the urban poor almost entirely without resources and dependent on charity or crime or both for survival. A short-term effect of the new mobility was a rapidly expanding middle class. Economic development opened many more opportunities for people to own or work in businesses, to own shops, to engage in trade, to enter professions, and to administer

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