The Long Term Negative Effects Of Black Youth Essay

2159 Words Dec 6th, 2016 9 Pages
In the year following the turn of the millennia, almost 4 million students were suspended or expelled from schools throughout the United States (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). This type of discipline that takes the student out of the learning environment is referred to as exclusionary discipline and students of color; particularly African American youths are disproportionately represented when compared to their white counterparts. African American children make up 17 percent of all students nationally, but 33 percent of suspensions as reported by the U.S. Department of Education in 2000. Numerous studies have documented the long-term negative effects of school exclusion, including dropping out, juvenile delinquency, unemployment, and poor academic achievement (McElderry & Cheng, 2014; Porter, 2015; Brown & Beckett, 2006; Brown, 2015). The present literature review attempts to investigate the causes for this overrepresentation of black youth being sent out of the classroom and what the future could hold if this trend were to continue. The analysis will focus on how student, family, and school-related risk factors contribute to school exclusion.
In Frank Brown’s article published in Educational Reform and African American Male Students After Brown v. Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the principle of separate but equal was fundamentally unequal in K-12 education. The Court ordered K-12 school segregation to end. In an effort to spur this shift, the…

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