Residential Migration Definition

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Integration is the elimination of barriers and enclosures that may limit free mobility and set up of positive non-hierarchical relationships (Marcuse, 2005). It means that spatially distributed resources and assets such as neighbourhoods, public facilities (schools, recreation areas and health facilities etc.) are shared by the members of different groups (Hartman & Squires, 2010). Many studies (Balbo & Navez-Bouchanine, 1995; Deffner & Hoerning, 2011; Kempen, 2007; Madrazo & Van Kempen, 2012) have upheld that residential fragmentation is a threat to urban integration and social cohesion. Fragmentation underscore disconnections rather than connections since it is related with barriers that obstruct choices and opportunities for social connections and interactions (Deffner & Hoerning, 2011). For instance, barriers such as walls may disconnect people from each other making it hard for near neighbours to have physical contacts due to the spatial relations between estates and neighbourhoods and maintain divisions between urban spaces (Jacobs, 1961; Legeby, 2010). Physical barriers that separate neighbourhoods from their surrounding areas are strong forces which reinforces residential segregation and fragmentation for residences (Roberto & Hwang, 2016) and weaken integration within these neighbourhoods. These may lead to dead ends and cul-de-sacs and restrict social interaction and physical access (Jacobs, 1961). According to Jacobs, gating the neighbourhoods discourage street life which is one of the areas where people enhance social networks and community …show more content…
Characteristics of fragmented cities
Balbo & Navez-bouchanine (1995) identified three structural features and characteristics that are evident in Global South cities and depict fragmentation. These include:
Illegality: This is where the city is characterized by illegal housing ranging between 50% and 80% that do not abide by building codes, zoning and planning regulation. It is called “illegal

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