Literature Review On Creatine

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2. Literature Review
2.1 Scope of Literature Review
This review will be centralised around review of relevant literature underpinning research theory, with creatine, golf physiology, senior sport implications and the wider application of ergogenic aids assuming influence.
2.2 What is Creatine?
Creatine is a naturally occurring ergogenic acid distributed throughout the body, 95% of which is located in the skeletal muscle, with the remaining 5% located in the brain, liver, kidneys and testes (Walker, 1979). Daily creatine turnover to creatinine, its waste product excreted in urine, is around 2g for a 70 kg adult with a purported 120g total creatine pool (TCr) (Persky et al, 2003). Meeting this degradation, creatine is obtained by endogenous production and exogenous sources (Balsom et al 1994). Exogenously creatine is obtained with
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Production begins via transfer of an amidine group from the arginine to glycine, in turn forming guanidionacetate and ornithine (Hall & Trojan, 2013).This reaction is catalysed by the arginine glycine amidino-transferase (AGAT) (Wyss and Kaddurah-Daouk, 2000). As theorised, guanidinoacetate is formed in the kidney and consequently transported in the bloodstream to the liver (Wyss and Kaddurah-Daouk, 2000). When in the liver, the methyl group from methionine, namely S-adenosylmethionine, is given to guanidinoacetate by S-adenosylmethionine: guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) (Walker, 1979). As a result of this biological process, creatine is chemically recognised as a methyl guandino-acetic acid. Rate of creatine synthesis is governed mainly by the creation of guanidinoacetate in AGAT (Wyss and Kaddurah-Daouk, 2000). Other biological factors found to impact synthesis are thyroid hormone levels, growth hormone concentration, testosterone level, and dietary deficiency or adaptation (Fasting) (Volek and Kramer,

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