The post war years saw a considerable increase in membership for the Ku Klux Klan and other anti-minority groups and violence against blacks increased all over the country (Huggins p.56). White Americans apparently believed in this "new Negro conscienceness" and viewed it as a threat. Everybody assumed the post war black "metamorphosis", and the thoughtful people knew that the change was going to have a profound effect on not only black culture, but American culture as a whole and the multi-colored world itself. With this new militant attitude towards non-resistance and accommodation, tensions between the races were high and many acts of violence toward black soldiers by white mobs were reported, but the ideas were already in motion and Harlem was to be the place where the "new Negro" was to flourish.
Around the turn of the century, black Americans along with white Americans were becoming more urban as a society. Large numbers of blacks had started streaming into northern urban cities such as New York, forced out by the poverty of