The Five Stages Of Psychological Theory

1146 Words 5 Pages
This essay will explain how psychological theory can help us understand the development of needs of an individual from the case study. It will include the five stages of the life cycle and the relationship of a range of needs associated with the development of the individual. It will also talk about two theoretical approaches with contrasting perspectives relating to the development and needs of the individual from the case study.

The five stages of the life cycle explain the processes an individual will go through in their lifetime. The infancy stage occurs from birth until the age of 2, where the child is able to take part in physical activities such as rolling over. Between the ages of 2-12 the childhood stage is where the individual learns
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The individual learns a basic virtue in each if the outcome is positive; every stage develops from the other and allows the person to gain skills and qualities. The first trust vs. mistrust occurs from 0-1 where the person learns hope from their mother. In order for the individual’s outcome to be positive they have to have care and affection. This stage in John’s development has been negative for him, because his mother wished she had never had him. Autonomy vs. shame is experienced at 1-3 years old and is when the individual learns doubt and will power and they have to be able to make their own choices. This is again negative for John because his case study shows how indecisive he is about what he wants to do in life. Initiative vs. guilt is where the individual learns of their purpose. This has been negative also for John because he has now unsure of his life as an adult and jumps from job to job. Competency is learned at the person’s school age where they learn competence at school. The person has to have their success acknowledged which also wasn’t a positive outcome for John because he constantly had to live up to and be as smart as his siblings. Ego identity vs. role confusion occurs during adolescence where the individual learns about fidelity from their peer groups. A positive outcome would …show more content…
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs argues that humans drive towards achieving needs they want and when one is gained they move on to the next one. “Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization” ( Maslow states that lower level needs have to be fulfilled before the higher ones in order for the individual to reach the highest need. According to Maslow’s theory John has not been able to move up the hierarchy of needs because of his low self-esteem and not being able to identify where he belongs in society. His life experiences have also been negative therefore making him fulfil higher needs instead of the lower ones. This theory provides a useful summary of human needs, which is considered a strength. A weakness of this is that it is not empirical therefore can’t be

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