Temperature Measurement

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This module will help you understand the applications of temperature measurement in industry as well as help you develop skills to convert temperature between common scales. It also discusses the thermal expansion principles used by some temperature measurement instruments. You will also learn about thermal contact and its effect on the accuracy and response time of temperature sensors, and about thermowells and their purpose.

Objective One
When you have completed this objective, you will be able to:
Explain why and where temperature measurement is used in industry.
Temperature Measurement
Temperature expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, and various degrees of higher temperatures are warm or
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Temperature Measurement Terms
Temperature measurement is an important parameter in monitoring and controlling processes in industry. You must understand the terms related to temperature measurement.
Temperature
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object; kinetic energy is the rate at which molecules or particles move. When particles of any matter (solids, liquids, gases or elementary plasmas) move faster, they carry more kinetic energy and feel warmer than a material with slower particles.
Boiling
Boiling is the process where molecules transition from the liquid phase to the gas phase, resulting in the formation of vapour bubbles within the liquid (Figure 1).

Figure 1 – Liquid changing to a gas.
Boiling Point
Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure that surrounds the liquid. At boiling point, the vapour pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and lift the liquid to form bubbles inside the bulk of the liquid. For example, at standard atmospheric pressure of 101.325 kPaa, the boiling point of water is 100C
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For example, water requires 2257 kJ/kg (970 BTU/lb) to change to steam. Steam gives up 2257 kJ/kg (970 BTU/lb) when it condenses back to water. The temperature stays constant during these phase changes (Figure

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