Radiometric Reflection

The following equation 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7 used to compute Land surface Emissivity, mean of LST and change of LSE of Band 10 and 11, respectively. LSE=0.004Pv+0.986 Eq. (3.5) Mean of LST= (LST10+LST11)/2 Eq. (3.6) Difference of land surface emissivity (LSE) =LSE10-LSE11 Eq. (3.7)
3.4.3. Radiometric correction
Radiometric correction requires converting a remote sensing digital number to spectral radiance values and data for comparisms. Image processing
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(3.9) Where,
L λ=Spectral radiance at sensors aperture or the calculated radiance associated to the ground area enclosed in the pixel and referred to the λ wavelength range of specific band.
Lmaxλ=spectral at Sensor Radiance that is scaled to Qcalmax
Lminλ=Spectral at Sensor Radiance that is scaled to Qcalmin
Qcalmax=Maximum Quantized Calibrated Pixel values corresponding to Lmaxλ
Qcalmin=Minimum Quantized Calibrated Pixel values corresponding to Lminλ
Qcal=Quantized Calibration Pixel value (DN)
3.4.5. Conversion to top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance
Landsat Thematic Mapper top of atmosphere reflectance data must be corrected and processed .because of variation in solar zenith angle due to time difference between data acquisition. The gained output also calibrated to reflectance value. Equation 3.10 was used to compute TOA. Pλ=(π.Lλ.d^2)/(ESUNλ.COSθ_S ) Eq. (3.10) Where, Pλ=planetary top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, which has no unit or it is unit
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Zonal statistics function summarizes the value of a raster within the zones of another dataset (either raster or vector) and reports the results as a Table. Maps of LU/LC, NDVI and LST were prepared for the year 1989, 1999 and 2016. To examine the spatial difference of LST according to varies LU/LC; the result was summarized using the zonal statistics tool of the ArcGIS 10. 3. subsequently, summarized LU/LC, NDVI and LST map data were analyzed using excel. Zonal statistics as table is one of important methods that used to examine the correlation between LULC and

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