Questions On Policy Implementation And Its Implementation Essay
According to Hill and Hupe (2002), “there was once was a period of very intense academic debate about the understanding of the phenomenon of implementation”. They stated that the key issues of the debates are the relationship between policy formulation and its implementation. There are two perspectives that have been described as one between the ‘top-down’ and second as the ‘bottom-up’. The question that arises regarding how to separate implementation from policy formulation is the issues of these two points of view in the wider problems of complexity.
The concept of implementation discussed has increased prevalently along with the contributed ideas of many experts on the implementation of the policy as one of the stages of the policy cycle. This policy cycle, in the Australian Policy Handbook 5th Edition, is likely to begin with identifying issues, and then proceeds through policy analysis, policy instruments, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. In the implementation phase consists of goals and objectives of policies, outputs of products, and the results and impact of policies in the society. However, the implementation does not run smoothly all times, where a tremendous contrast between purposes and outcomes may happen.
As cited in Winter (2003), the study of policy implementation is divided into three generations. The first generation is represented by Pressman and…