Section 1- Calculations and Pedigrees
1. In DNA extraction the proteins absorb light at 260nm and 280nm, especially the aromatic acids.
2. 250µg to nm, 250 x 1000 = 250,000ng.
3. 200ng/ml = 0.2µg/ml. 150µg/ml = 150,000µg/ml 250,000pg/µl = 250µg/ml 1mg/ml = 1000µg/ml
● 150,00µg/ml - HIGHEST CONCENTRATION OF DNA
● 0.2µg/ml - LOWEST CONCENTRATION OF DNA
4. Sodium dodecyl sulphate is used as a detergent, which allows the cells to release DNA by disrupting the cell and nuclear membranes. It dissolves the proteins and lipids that hold the membranes together.
5. The isolated DNA can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, investigate forensic evidence …show more content…
The first of the studies in discussion is the use of Drosophila to investigate parkin’s effects on Parkinson’s disease. PD is a neurodegenerative disease by the reduction of dopaminergic neurons. When Drosophila neurons express the human α-synuclein it intimidates the lack and loss of motor control that in seen in humans with Parkinson’s disease. Parkin is a protein, which functions as an ubiquitin ligase to aim for certain proteins for degradation. Those carrying out the investigation generated transgenic Drosophila that express parkin under the yeast UAS enhancers controls. Only when parkin and α-synucein are co-expressed is the climbing ability of the fly loss prematurely, due to the dopaminergic neurons suppressing the α-synuclein. On the contrary- expression of parkin alone causes little repercussions or consequences-although when directed to the eye counteracts the α-s degeneration of ommatidial arrangement. PD-like symptoms in the α-synuclein dependent Drosophila are suppressed when parkin is introduced; thus showing that parkin, if up regulated in humans, should suppress α-synucleinopathic Parkinson’s disease. Another case being studied by myself is; ‘The experimental evolution of specialists, generalists, and the maintenance of diversity’. Discussion of niche width usually evolving with environmental variation, generalists evolving in heterogeneous environments and specialists evolving in homogeneous environments. Further reading suggests that the genetics of the niche width is a lot more complex than once thought, especially when considering adaptations and constraints on generalist’s evolution. Negative frequency-dependent selection allows the diversity to be maintained for genetic variation in fitness between heterogeneous and homogeneous environments; heterogeneous’ variation is readily maintained. The conclusion drawn is that environmental heterogeneity is plausible yet