Pavlov And B. F. Skinner's Approach To Behavioristic Psychology

2274 Words 10 Pages
Register to read the introduction… F. Skinner with theory of classical conditioning and operant conditioning theory. Classical conditioning was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov in 1927 as he observed that critical association occurs when one environmental effect predicts the occurrence of another. An example of this is the classical study of how dogs in a laboratory were conditioned to salivate without food. Pavlov found that the dogs salivated when they saw feeding assistants coming with the vessel containing the food (Hayes, 1998). As Hayes (1998: 4) states ‘salivation should only have been a response to the food itself, Pavlov reasoned that the dogs must have learned that association’. Hayes (1998:4) also notes how Pavlov found that by ringing a bell each time the dogs were fed ‘a new association could be formed between stimuli and responses – even responses which were not automatic reflexes’. The research undertaken by Pavlov identified three influencing factors regarding conditioning which are contiguity, frequency and …show more content…
The cognitive approach was criticised in the early years because it heavily relied on laboratory experiments. However these days it contrasts well with the humanistic approach as research is undertaken in the laboratory and in field studies. It must be noted that humanistic psychology has in the past been criticised due to the fact that it cannot be tested via a scientific method. In comparison the behaviourist approach is often criticised as a study of humans as not enough emphasis is placed on the role of other factors when determining a person’s behaviour, such as the cognitive processes that can lead to a certain type of behaviour. The biological approach is criticised for not taking into account the fact that societal or environmental factors may cause illness that can affect behaviour. An example of this discussed by Heffernan (2000: 7) is that ‘behavioural and cognitive factors (such as direct negative experience or irrational thoughts) can lead to psychopathology, without any clear biological

Related Documents