Essay about Part Correctional Philosophies
02 December 2016
Part A: Correctional philosophies
In the field of Corrections, there are five different philosophies used. These philosophies include deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution, restitution/restorative justice. These philosophies hold a different perspective of the victim and focuses on different areas of punishment.
Deterrence is defined as the use of threat to deter someone from committing crime. There are two types of deterrence, general and specific. General deterrence focuses on crime prevention within the general population. This form of deterrence is set as an example for those in the general population who may have not committed crime. Specific deterrence focuses on crime prevention from the individual. Specific deterrence believes that severe punishment for the individual will decrease the chance of future offending. This method is also considered an ancient method of punishment. For example, deaths consisted of torture and mutilations were done to “make an example” out of the offender (Wright, 2010).
Incapacitation would be restricting the individual of their rights and removing them away from society. By incapacitating the offender, future offending is already minimized to the lowest risk. Selective incapacitation has a goal to reduce crime by identifying and maintaining high risk offenders in prison. For example, offenders of capital crimes are less likely to be granted a chance…