Correctional Treatment Model

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Scholarly research has demonstrated the many correctional treatment programs have effectively reduced recidivism rates (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Although the concepts of rehabilitation and correctional treatment were dominant throughout the majority of the twentieth century, they have been subject to much debate and criticism. Such controversy can be seen when examining the three different shifts in thinking about offenders and how such views have influenced correctional treatment models.
In the early 1800s, “penitentiaries” were established as offenders were removed from society in order to transform their behaviors by placing them in a more structured environment (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Beginning in the 1800s, competition began amongst
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This concept of the “new penology” was developed at a conference in Cincinnati in 1870 and embraced the notion that psychological and social factors resulted in criminal behavior (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Therefore, in order to prevent criminal behavior from occurring, the process of corrections should be to identify the criminogenic variables and alter them. It was during this period that the indeterminate sentence was added. The indeterminate sentence served as an incentive for offenders to change as it provided them with the opportunity to earn freedom more quickly, and introduced the modern-practice of parole. As a result of the “new penology”, it became critical to recognize that rehabilitation needed to be individualized to each offender. The Progressive Era invoked reforms promoting the practice of individualized treatment for offenders. Completing rehabilitation, gave offenders the opportunity to be released to the community under supervision. Once released, if the offender failed to comply with the orders of their parole officer and demonstrated that they had not been successfully rehabilitated, they would return to …show more content…
Martinson’s research analyzed 231 studies, all of which had both treatment and comparison groups. His essay argued that rehabilitation and correctional treatment programs were not effective in reducing recidivism rates. Martinson also suggested that offenders were not capable of learning to behaviors as he claimed that there was no type of intervention that proved to consistently reduce recidivism. With all of the distrust towards the criminal justice system and the government, many scholars, liberals and conservatives accepted Martinson’s claims without hesitation. As a result, rehabilitation was harshly criticized and deterrent-oriented policies were implemented, such as three strikes laws, mandatory minimum sentences, and determinate sentences; all of which aimed to increased sentences and limited discretion while further demeaning the offender population (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000).
As many accepted that rehabilitation was not effective, Ted Palmer did not. Palmer revisited Martinson’s work and found that Martinson had made a methodological error as he failed to separate the various treatment categories. Palmer then calculated then and found that almost half of the treatment programs could be classified as reducing recidivism rates (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Palmer presented that in order for treatment programs to be effective, they must

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