Parkinson's Disease Case Study

757 Words 4 Pages
When Amy placed her finger on the burner, the general sensory receptors (Ireland, 2012) in her skin sent the message that it was hot. The sensory neuron is responsible for carrying the information. This is an afferent neuron, because it is taking the message to the central nervous system. The message is carried through the peripheral nervous system to the spinal cord. Once it reaches the spinal cord, association neurons pass the message to motor neurons. Motor neurons, which are efferent, carry the message back to move. This chain is called a reflex, which is meant to be a fast reaction to stimuli. It does not even reach the brain, going directly from the dorsal root through the spinal cord to the ventral root. Evolution made this system to …show more content…
Once the involuntary reflex has already occurred, the brain is able to think about the pain and carry out our voluntary response, such as running the hand under cold water. Early (or young) onset Parkinson’s disease occurs when a person is diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease earlier than the typical onset of fifty-five or above (Rana et al., 2016). Parkinson’s disease itself is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder. Common symptoms are bradykinesia (slowness of movements), resting tremors, and rigidity. The treatment plan varies for standard and young Parkinson’s disease, due to side effects of the medicine levodopa in prolonged use. Parkinson’s disease is caused by deterioration in the area of the brain that controls motor functions. The substantia nigra has neuromelanin that synapses to the cells of the striatum (Göttlich et al., 2013). Dopamine …show more content…
Myelin sheath insulates nerve fibers. The disease is different for different patients, and can vary not only in the appearance of symptoms but in the rate and progression. More common symptoms include fatigue, paresthesia, muscle stiffness or spasms, tremors, weakness, dizziness, paralysis, and bladder or bowel issues. It is a disease of the central nervous system. Although myelin is present in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, different cells produce the myelin in each system. Oligodendrocytes produce the myelin in the central nervous system. When inflammation occurs, myelin is stripped from the axon. This is called demyelination. Because myelin sheath helps speed up impulses, the loss of it will result in slower impulses (Myers, 2014). Multiple sclerosis will lead to the loss of axons in the brain and spinal cord over time. Because the axon is part of the messaging process between neurons, this will cause problems in communication. A common hypothesis regarding multiple sclerosis is that people are genetically inclined to have it and an environmental trigger brings it on. The Epstein-Barr virus has been found to have a link to multiple sclerosis. Having any other auto-immune disease has also been shown to raise the risk of multiple sclerosis. Not having enough exposure to the sun and vitamin D are possible

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