Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

1308 Words 6 Pages
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease or autoimmune disorder which affects the central nervous system of an individual; the brain and spinal cord. Though not much is known of the cause of MS, researchers believe that Multiple Sclerosis causes the body’s immune system to attack the myelin sheath. The myelin sheaths are an insulating coating around the nerve cells, consisting of a mixture of proteins and phospholipids, which help to increase the speed at which nerve impulses are conducted. As the myelin degrades the communication between the nerve cells in the central nervous system become muddled causing some parts of the body not to receive instructions normally from the CNS (central nervous system). It is the central nervous system which …show more content…
Some of the more common symptoms include: fatigue (occurs in about 80% if people), walking difficulties (weakness, loss of balance), numbness or tingling of the limbs, vision problems (the first symptom of MS for many persons), bladder problems (dysfunction of the bladder in about 80% of persons), sexual problems (very common in with individuals of MS), bowel problems (constipation as well as loss of bowel control), pain syndromes are common ( one study showed 55% had clinically significant pain associated), dizziness and vertigo (feelings of being off balance or lightheaded), and spasticity (referring to the feelings of stiffness and vast rage of involuntary muscle spasms; much more common in lower limbs). According to the Mayo Clinic, multiple sclerosis affects most people between the ages of 20-40 years of age; although the disease can be developed at any age. It has been a documented fact that women have a more likely chance of developing the disease than men …show more content…
There are many factors associated with the theory of the etiology of depression in MS patients including; immune dysfunction, psychosocial stress, and focal demyelinating lesions. There have been a few theoretical frameworks for using validated instruments in the assessment of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis. One specific visualizes depressive symptoms being related to other MS-related emotional responses and symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, and low self-confidence/esteem which affect overall quality of life. Providers must consider many factors when diagnosing depression in MS patients as there are some symptoms or syndromes which can mask symptoms of depression. Although rare, patients suffering from multiple sclerosis may exhibit pathological laughter or crying which will not directly be associated with the underlying mood; this makes things tricky for providers to recognize depression in some patients. This type of condition correlates with commonly occurs with bilateral forebrain diseases. MS is commonly associated with depression due to the direct impairment of lesions on brain structures which are involved in the regulation and maintenance of an MS patients mood, effects of interferon-b for treating MS patients (which may be related to mood changes), and psychosocial effects of MS disability. The depression can also come from the anxiety of

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