Thomas Kuhn's Theory Of Paradigms

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there are

already predetermined problems of earlier paradigms set to be solved. The final

problem with natural science is the articulation of a paradigm. Researchers must

conduct experiments and observations to articulate or express coherently

paradigms. They must undergo work on the paradigm to prove and define the given

models of previous theory. After giving attention to these problems Kuhn suggests

that the practicing of articulated paradigms will be determined as capable of

answering set problems or incapable and with that will cease to be used in further

experiments. In the following chapter of paradigms, Kuhn makes obvious the use of

paradigms in normal science as being part of a puzzle. The research that scientists
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Moving forward from the failures of experiments, scientists

possess a drive to find results to add precision to given paradigms and improve its

accountability. To discover the nature of a paradigm, one must follow the set rules

passed down from earlier results of attempted experiments with those paradigms.

After explain the nature of paradigms, Thomas Kuhn gives insight to the emergence

of crises and scientific theories. He defines crises as being the outcome of changes in

paradigms and the arrival of new theories brought about by failed theories. What

has become common sense or second nature to scientists now is the action to

develop a new theory from a failed attempt with an older theory. When working

with science one is to expect such failure to occur quite often. These crises offer the

opportunity to the scientists to rethink and reorganize.

Following its emergence, Kuhn gives us a response to crises. He wants us to

assume that a crises is a precondition, as he puts it, for the emergence of novel

theories and ask how scientists react to these theories. Kuhn wants to reassure us

that scientists do not treat such crises as extremes to renounce
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The transition from older paradigms to newer from precise

ones lead to a different understanding of normal science. This transition then leads

to a scientific revolution, the move from normal to new, more complex research. In

the final five chapters of The Structure of Scientific Revolution, Kuhn discusses the

shift from old paradigms to new ones causing a revolution in science. Scientific

revolutions are very similar to political revolutions. In both fields, the newer

members of the communities cease to use the older paradigms or models that once

were used to answer existing problems the need for newer data and research is

required which then leads to members breaking off into their own competing

parties. The separate parties will then engage in conflict with each other using

methods of persuasion trying to convince the other that their new methods and

models are correct. The acceptance of the newer theories and paradigms leads to

the extinction of the older paradigm that is deemed invalid. The change of

paradigms then affect the world as a whole, not just changing the views of scientific

communities but also the views of those who wish to enter a field of scientific

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