Hare And Maxion Analysis

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Not Every Morality Is U-type

Hare and Murdoch are two influential philosophers for their philosophies of the morality. In Hare’s “Universalizability”, he states that “I now wish to argue that all moral valuations are of type U”, later in the text “that all moral uses of the word ‘ought’ involve a U-type maxim is apparent.” He means every morality is considered as the U-type. Murdoch disagrees with Hare and claims that not every morality is U-Type. In her literature “Vision And Choice”, she says “my second argument will be to the effect that certain moralities make use, positively, of a quite different model.” It seems that Hare can give an objection towards Murdoch because he believes non-U-types moral valuations are not understandable so
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To prove her own argument, Murdoch makes an example of M and D in her “Idea of Perfection". M is the mother and D are her daughter in law. M used to dislike D’s accent and the way D dresses and she believes that her son cannot marry her. However, M is the well intelligent person who can do self-criticism, after a period of time, she starts to do the introspection about the attitudes towards D. She finds herself that she is old fashion and conventional. She also finds herself may be prejudiced and snobbish. M’s morality of self-introspection cannot be considered as the U-type. On the 22nd page of “The Idea of Perfection”, Murdoch claims, “M’s activity is peculiarly her own. Its details are the details of this personality; and partly, for this reason, it may well be an activity, which can only be performed privately. M could not do this thing in conversation with another person.” Murdoch means M’s morality of self-introspection is the activity that comes from her own personality and experience rather than any universalized reason. In fact, not everyone thinks it is necessary to do self-introspection like M. Even if everyone believes it is necessary to do the self-introspection, everyone does the self-introspection in different ways and not everyone would do the self-introspection like M. Therefore, M 's valuation is not the universalizability. Hare believes the valuations with no general reason is not understandable because they are nonsense but M 's self-introspection is the moral valuation comes from the individual personality, which exists and stands in the real world. Therefore, except U-type moral valuation, the moral valuation that comes from the personal reason is existing. Hare uses the example of K and E to claim that the valuation with non-general reason is

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