MODR 1760 Essay

8090 Words Nov 25th, 2013 33 Pages
Lecture 1:
Obstacles to critical thinking:


Egocentrism – Inability to see things at others’ points of view. I want you to support me and tell me that I’m right. I don’t want your rational analysis. Just support me no matter what. Adults are more egocentric
Ethnocentrism – Or sociocentrism. My society, my ethnic background, etc.
Stereotyping – Although there is a cognitive compensity to do this.
Fear / Psychological Defensiveness – fear of questioning the beliefs
Dogmatism – This is faith. I can’t prove it but I accept it.
Bigotry –
Propaganda – usually distorted information
Resistance to change –
Unquestioned Loyalties –
Blind obedience to authority –
Mindless conformity –
Willed Ignorance –
Demagoguery – Take
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An untold assumption that the whole argument is based on.
Example: “The bigger the burger, the better the burger. The burgers are bigger at Burger King.”
The implicit statement (unstated conclusion) is: the burgers are better at Burger King.
Through a series of claims, you will be led to an obvious conclusion which is actually missing.
Example: Herman couldn’t be the robber. He didn’t have a tattoo on his left arm. Implicit: the robber had a tattoo on his left arm.

Simple vs Complex Arguments:
Simple argument – an argument with one and only one conclusion and at least one supporting premise.

Example1: She’s armed so she’s dangerous. (p1 = She’s armed. C = so, she’s dangerous.)

Standard form – main conclusion always goes at bottom. Supporting premise(s) always go above the conclusion they’re meant to support.

Example2: in view of the fact that (Toronto Raptors traded away their best player), (they will not make the NBA play-offs.)

Complex argument – arguments with more than one conclusion.

There is one main conclusion and one an intermediate one.
Each intermediate conclusion can be a claim to prove the main conclusion.
Example: “Jesse breaks bones so easily and he dislocates his shoulder with every hard hit. So, let’s face it, he’s too fragile. Because of this, we’re forced to conclude that Jesse will not make it to the National Football League.” o Premise One: Jesse breaks bones

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