Microbiology Study Questions Essay

8534 Words Aug 13th, 2012 35 Pages

Independent Study Questions 1.) What is the fundamental difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Procaryotic cells do not contain a membrane-bound nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles. Eurkaryotic cells contain both a membrane mound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (making them far more complex).

2.) List and describe the two domains of prokaryotic organisms. a. Bacteria- Most are a specific shape (cylindrical, spiral, or spherical). Cell wall contains peptidoglycan. Multiply by binary fission. b. Archaea- Similar in shape, size, and appearance to Bacteria. Multiply by binary fission. Cell wall does not contain peptidoglycan.

3.) List and describe the four groups
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a. Act as selective gates that allow nutrients to enter the cell and waste products to exit b. Act as sensors of environmental conditions; provides cells with a way to monitor and adjust to its surroundings

10.) How is the electron transport chain related to proton motive force? The proteins of the ETC sequentially transfer electrons and, as a result of the process, remove protons out of the cell. This creates a proton gradient across the membrane (H+ ions are concentrated right outside the membrane while OH- ions remain inside). Their separation creates an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, resulting in a form of potential energy called proton motive force. This energy can be harvested when protons are allowed to move back into the cell. Review Questions 1.) How is facilitated diffusion different from active transport? In facilitated diffusion, no energy is expended by the cell because it simply move molecules down a concentration gradient. In active transport, compounds are moved against a concentration gradient and thus energy is required.

2.) Describe the two general types of active transport systems. 1 Via proton motive force – Transporters allow a proton into the cell and simultaneously either bring along or expel another substance. 2 Via ATP – Transport mechanisms called ABC transport systems require ATP as an energy source (i.e. they hydrolyze ATP). These systems use specific

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