Mechanical Ventilation Research Paper

2485 Words 10 Pages
Mechanical Ventilation and the Effects on the Cardiopulmonary and Renal Systems
Amanda K. Godshall
West Chester University

Abstract
The important objective of this paper is to explore mechanical ventilation and the many effects it has on a patient’s organ systems. The cardiovascular system can be affected along with the pulmonary and renal systems. Cardiovascular side effects depend upon the previous underlying cardiopulmonary status of each patient. Conditions pertaining to congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cause hyperinflation, which compresses the heart and lungs. There are studies that are shown in this paper including beneficial effects of positive pressure ventilation (PPV)
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There is some information on the hemodynamic effects of ventilation depending upon a patient’s cardiopulmonary status. According to Duke (1999) there can be effects from mechanical ventilation even on patients considered “healthy subjects”. Mechanical ventilation can cause a fall in the aortic flow and systolic blood pressure. Reasons for the fall in the blood pressure include: a decrease in left ventricular preload, a decreased right ventricular preload, an increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PBR), right ventricular afterload, and ventricular interdependence. Aortic pressures in cardiac output decrease at a fast rate during inspiration and can be reversed by volume loading. This leads to the conclusion that the decrease in preload is …show more content…
Patients on PPV can have a weakened cardiac output based on their chest wall and lung compliance, their airway resistance (Raw) and the airway pressure (Paw). When the airway pressure in the patient increases it also increases intrapleural pressure and it compresses the blood vessels inside the heart causing the central venous pressure (CVP) to rise. When this occurs, the pressure gradient decreases between the systemic veins and the right side of the heart, which decreases the venous return to the right side of the heart. It also decreases preload or right ventricular filling. In effect, the right ventricular stroke volume

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