Respiratory System: A Case Study

The respiratory system is composed by a set of organs that are involved when breathing. The anatomy of the respiratory tract includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs, alveoli and the diaphragm. There some organs of the respiratory system that are responsible for the process of breathing. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs permit the gas exchange to happen at the cellular level. The air enters through the nose and mouth and it goes into the lungs to supply all the oxygen that the human body needs to work properly.
The main role of the respiratory system is to allow the lungs to take in oxygen through inhalation and take out the oxygen that the body does not need through exhalation (Health, MD, 2015).
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The nurse should assess the face, the neck, chest and the abdomen. In the inspection the professional should look for evidence of respiratory distress, breathlessness, cough, wheeze, recently weight loss, tremor, cyanosis, tobacco staining, Cushing syndrome, anemia, possible apical lung cancer (Horner 's syndrome), any possible tracheal obstruction, lymphadenopathy, superior vena cava obstruction. When palpating the professional will use the index finger to feel the trachea and to see if the trachea feels in the middle, chest expansion, when assess tactile vocal fremitus, use the ulnar side of the hand, by the hypothenar eminence with the palms facing upwards. Place it at various levels over the back, each time asking the patient to say "ninety-nine". Note how the sound is transmitted to the hand. Tactile vocal fremitus is increased over areas of consolidation and decreased or absent over areas of effusion or collapse. Feel for the apex beat of the heart; it will be displaced if the mediastinum is displaced or distorted. In the Percussion it is usual to use the middle finger of the dominant hand to check the chest, clavicle, lobes of the lungs front and back except the middle lobe, the heart, hyper-resonant or dull sounds of hyperinflation or pneumothorax. The rest of the chest is percussed by placing the non-dominant hand on the chest and …show more content…
The recurrence and severity of attacks are influenced by several triggers, of which exposure to tobacco smoke and viral illnesses are the most frequently identify factors. Other respiratory exposure are air pollution, allergens, dust, cold air, exercise, perfumes, or medicines may contribute to asthma attacks. Autonomic and inflammatory mediators especially arachidonic acid derivate such as leukotrienes play important roles. Mild episodic asthma is well managed with the intermittent use of short-acting inhaled beta 2 agonists, such as albuterol. Patients with more severe disease or frequent exacerbation rely on medication to control the disease, such as inhale corticosteroids. Acute asthmatic attacks may require high doses or frequent dosing of beta agonists and steroids. Also, the use of the nebulizer is recommended but more frequently for kids (F.A. Davis,

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