Material: Cutting Tools Essay

2581 Words Nov 4th, 2012 11 Pages
This paper discusses the types and characteristics of cutting tools materials and cutting fluids together with their main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is organised into two parts; the first part is dedicated to cutting tools materials and the second part to cutting fluids.


The selection of cutting tool material and grade is an important factor to consider when planning a successful metal cutting operation. A basic knowledge of each cutting tool material and its performance is therefore important so that the correct selection for each application can be made. Considerations include the work piece material to be machined, the component type and shape, machining conditions and the level
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Its main use is in turning tool bits although it is very common in milling cutters and saw blades. It supports a hardness of up to about HRC 90 and sharp edges are generally not recommended.
Coated Carbides
The cutting system is based on providing a thin layer of high wear-resistant titanium carbide fused to a conventional tough grade carbide insert, thus achieving a tool combining the wear resistance of one material with the wear resistance of another. These systems provide a longer wear resistance and a higher cutting speed compared to conventional carbides.
Ceramics are made by powder metallurgy from aluminium oxide with additions of titanium oxide and magnesium oxide to improve cutting properties. They are stable and moderately inexpensive. Chemically inert and extremely resistant to heat, ceramics are usually desirable in high speed applications however they are brittle and have little resistance to shock. Ceramics are considered unpredictable under unfavourable conditions. Their use is therefore limited to tips used for continuous high speed cutting on vibration-free machines.
The most common ceramic materials are based on alumina (aluminium oxide), silicon nitride and silicon carbide. They are used almost exclusively on turning tool bits. They have a hardness up to about HRC 93 and sharp cutting edges and positive rake angles are to be avoided.
Cermets are stable and moderately expensive. They are

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