ABO Blood Group Essay

Great Essays
Prior to WWII many anthropologists maintained that race was a biological phenomenon best ascertained through the use of anthropometric measurements. After the war, however, a growing number of anthropologists along with geneticists and serologists began to rethink the race concept and its attendant methodologies. Prompted by political and social events as well as empirical shifts brought on by the modern synthesis, these scientists sought more "objective" and "scientifically valid" methods for the study of race. The ABO blood groups emerged in the mid-century as an exciting new avenue for racial research. Discovered in 1901 by Austrian biochemist Karl Landsteiner, the ABO groups are a classificatory system of blood based on the expression of antigenic molecules on the surface of red blood cells. Proponents of blood group studies touted their superiority over phenotypic traits because their inheritance was unknown and they were not by environmental changes.
Blood group genetics began in the 1920s, when immunologists Ludwig and
…show more content…
The willingness of physical anthropologists to confront the empirical challenges posed by racial studies was particularly influential to new thinking about race. Not only were physical anthropologists splintered on what constituted race, they also debated the number of races and how to delineate them. Secondly, the discovery of Nazi atrocities and the burgeoning Civil Rights movement prompted many physical anthropologists to rethink the race concept as they sought to distance their field from the scientific racism of the first last century. And finally, the emergence of the modern synthesis changed the way that many geneticists thought about race. The shift towards populations as the basis for analysis, many argued, was no longer compatible with the essentialist notions underpinning

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Historiography Stefan Kühl explores this relationship between German and American eugenicists in his book, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. He states, “Attempts to separate eugenics from the Nazi program of race improvement were only partially successful. The personal and ideological links between eugenics and mass sterilization and extermination were too obvious to be overlooked.” Indeed, the two movements were linked, and this relationship influenced the racial policies of Nazi Germany. He concludes that “Nevertheless, the involvement of American eugenicists with Nazi policies reveals that the ideology of race improvement that was at the root of the massacres was by no means limited to German…

    • 1629 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The relationship between the Germany and American Eugenics movement was unique and dynamic at the time. How closely linked were they? This relationship was particularly dynamic and close but after World War II was severed due to the outcome of the Holocaust and death toll. Stefan Kühl explores this relationship between German and American eugenicists in his book, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. He states, “Attempts to separate eugenics from the Nazi program of race improvement were only partially successful.…

    • 751 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    It categorises a person’s blood type according to the antigens found on the surfaces of their red blood cells. This blood grouping system was discovered in 1901 by Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner (Durand & Willis, 2010) and is a system of classification that still exists today. The ABO blood grouping system is controlled by the ABO gene, which is found on chromosome 9 and has three alleles A, B and O (Farhud & Yeganeh, 2013). Further research undertaken in 1940 by Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener produced the discovery of the Rhesus blood group. In 1946 Coombs discovered the Kell system by using his anti-globulin test (Coombs et al, 1946).…

    • 1981 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This 1923 publication offered an overview of civilizations Cox believed to have perished because of miscegenation. In writing White America, Cox aimed chiefly to advocate for a strong eugenics program that would preserve the biological fitness of native-born white Americans. The “ideal of eugenics,” according to Cox, was the absolute maintenance of white purity. The book received the endorsement of many notable eugenicists, including Madison Grant and Harry Laughlin, and even became part of the University of Virginia’s biology…

    • 1515 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The science of biology and applied psychology were affected by the progression and impact of the science of Eugenics. Eugenics remained under the consideration of a communal faction in the late nineteenth century; asserting to perfect the genetic attributes of human populations via prudent propagation and sterilization, grounded by the idea of Francis Galton; who supposed that it was within the realm of science to extricate inferior elements of society and replace them with superior elements. An analysis of this concept will include Cattell’s, Galton’s, Darwin’s, and Spencer’s contributions whether direct or indirect, and due to the zeitgeist of the time. Towards the end of the nineteenth century Wundt’s psychology and Titchener’s structuralism…

    • 757 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The Evolution of Darwin It is difficult to argue against the magnitude of the impact Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection had on the world. It has revolutionized biology as we know it and given an exact definition of the term ‘species’. During his journey to develop this theory, a great number of people had influenced Darwin’s thinking and actions which eventually led to his elucidation of the mechanisms of evolution. This essay will examine some of these individuals in greater detail to examine how they had affected Darwin, either through modifying his thinking or a more direct form of assistance. Two such examples are the economist Thomas Malthus and the lawyer Charles Lyell.…

    • 1511 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Reticular Theory Essay

    • 842 Words
    • 4 Pages

    One year after Forel and Nansen published their results, Cajal first articulated the neuron doctrine, and disseminated the theory to the German Anatomical Society the year thereafter (7). In 1891, Heinrich Waldeyer gave an extensive review of the evidence for the neuron doctrine, coining the term ‘neuron’ in the process (12). Not to be outdone, Forel made the first claim to priority for the idea that nerve cells exist as discrete entities that same year (2, pp 15). Current authors, such as R.W. Guillery, reject this claim, arguing that Forel overextended his conclusions based on degeneration alone…

    • 842 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Buck V. Jail Case Analysis

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages

    This Immigration Act in 1924 was an attempt that scientist and others alike wanted to use in the hopes that by sterilizing numerous American citizens was a way for them to improve the genetic quality of the American population. Author Adam Cohen who wrote Im⸱be⸱ciles The Supreme Court, American Eugenics and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck appeared in the Buck v. Bail video where he spoke in details about Carrie Buck background story and the steps that lead to the reason why Carrie was sterilized. According to Cohen he stated: Carrie was a young woman who was growing up in Charlottesville Virginia being raised by a single mother, back then there was a belief that it was better off to take poor children away from their parents and put them into middle-class homes; Carrie was treated very badly in the foster family she wasn’t allow to call her parents and she did a lot of housekeeping for the family, Carrie was rented out to the neighbors and one summer she was raped by the nephew of her foster mother; Carrie became pregnant out of wedlock and rather than helping her with the pregnancy, they decide to get her declared epileptic and feeble-minded though she was neither and she was shipped off to the colony for epileptic and feeble-minded outside Lynchburg Virginia (Democracy…

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Thus far, the vast majority of examples of racist propaganda I have found were created by America against the Japanese. As my paper will cover racism in propaganda in a broader sense, I need to find examples of propaganda created against other nations or by other nations against Allied forces. Also, many prime examples of racist propaganda have been either lost through the years, or pulled from the public making finding some sources difficult. Another issue will be keeping the paper specific enough which will be challenging due to the fact that I will be looking at many examples, nations, and cultures. The only solution to this problem will be through careful organization of my essay and thorough planning.…

    • 753 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    America may be the land of the free and the home of the brave, but is it a country that has overcome hate and racism? Forms of racism have existed for a long time, especially in American history. The idea of race, however, is a modern concept that was formed and changed over time, and fueled by preconceived notions of inferiority and superiority. Scientists validated the concept of racial differences to show natural hierarchy of certain groups ("Race Timeline- Go Deeper"). The ideology that one’s racial or ethnic group is innately superior to others in humanity formed; now racism continues to exist as certain groups exclude, dominate, or seek to eliminate another group based on differences that are unalterable and hereditary.…

    • 803 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays