Metastatic Cancer Research Paper

What is metastatic colorectal cancer? “Metastatic cancer is cancer that has spread to other parts of the body” (WebMD). When the colon or rectal cancer spreads through the body, it is often found in the liver, sometimes found in the lungs, bones and other organs of the body. Colorectal cancer often happens when cells that are not grown normally in your colon or rectum, these cells are grown together and forms polyps, which are “benign growths (noncancerous tumors or neoplasms) involving the lining of the bowel” (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy). Over time, some of the polyps can turn into cancer.
Metastatic colorectal cancer symptoms are determined by where the cancer has spread, as well as the location and size of the tumor
…show more content…
If it spreads to the liver, symptoms may result in nausea, extreme fatigue, high abdominal girth, fluid collection which causes swelling hands and feet, and yellowing or itchy skin. If it spreads to the lymph nodes of the belly, it may result to bloating, a swollen belly or loss of appetite. If it spreads to the brain or spinal cord, symptoms may result in pain, confusion, memory loss, headache, blurred or double vision, difficulty with speech, difficulty with movement or seizures. Patients that have metastatic colorectal cancer may not always realize the symptoms before being diagnosed. Colorectal cancer has a staging system known as the “TNM system, which has been established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer” (CTCA). The TNM system is three key factors that determine the stage of cancer: Tumor (T) looks at how far the main tumor has grown into the walls of the colon or rectal, and if it has expanded into other areas. Lymph node (N) examines the extent of the cancer spread to other areas of the lymph node. Metastasis (M) refers to whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body. A number zero to four or the letter x is assigned to each factor. In …show more content…
Stage 0 can be treated by surgery to take out the cancer due to the cancer not growing beyond the inner lining of the colon. Stage I is treated by removing the polyps completely. Stage II can be treated by just surgery removing the section of the colon affected by cancer along with the lymph nodes nearby but sometimes your doctor may recommend doing chemotherapy after surgery if your cancer is show to have a high risk of coming back. Stage II may also be treated by radiation therapy to try to kill any remaining cancer cells if your surgeon is not sure all of the cancer was removed because it has grown into other tissues. Stage III surgery can be used to remove the section of the colon that was affected with cancer along with the nearby lymph nodes which is followed by chemotherapy, your doctor may advise radiation therapy if the surgeon thinks some cancer cells are remaining. In most cases of stage IV it is less likely to cure cancer by surgery, however if few small areas of cancer spreads in the lungs or liver and they can completely remove it along with the colon cancer the surgery can prolong your life or may even cure you. If the metastases cannot be removed by surgery due to them being too large or there are too many of them, chemotherapy may be given before any

Related Documents

Related Topics