Stages Of Gastrointestinal Cancer

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Gastrointestinal cancer refers to cancers that typically affect the digestive system. This incorporates cancers of the oesophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, bowel, and anus (GI Cancer Institute, 2012). The types of Gastrointestinal cancer can be in the upper digestive tract or the lower digestive tract. Cancers in the upper digestive tract are: Esophageal, Stomach, pancreatic, liver,gall bladder. Cancer of the lower digestive tract include: anal, and colorectal cancer. (Wikimedia Foundation, 2015). Every year 4,000 to 5,000 adult in the U.S are diagnosed with a Gastrointestinal tumor (Cancer.Net, 2014).

Colon cancer is a type of Gastrointestinal cancer found in the lower part of the digestive system: large intestine.
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First is Stage 0; this is where there are abnormal cells found in the lining of the colon. Stage I is where the cancer is formed and has spread into the different layers of the rectal wall. In Stage II the cancer has spread into outside the rectal walls and into nearby tissues. Stage III Cancer has spread into the lymph nodes that are close. Stage IV cancer has spread to other parts of the body like the liver or lungs and also spread to other lymph nodes (MD Anderson, n.d.). Fortunately, there are many test that can help detect Colon cancer or polyps that might cause it. The most common one is a Colonoscopy; this process uses a long tube, with a camera attached to it, to view the inside of the colon. Surgical tools are able to pass through the tube so any tissues samples can be taken for analysis. (Mayo Clinic, 2013). Another test for Colon cancer is an CT colonography, and it takes multiple CT images to created a picture of your colon (Mayo Clinic, 2013). Other diagnostic test for Colon CAncer include Double-contrast barium enema, Flexible sigmoidoscopy, Guaiac-based fecal occult blood test, Fecal immunochemical test, and a Stool DNA test (American Cancer Society, 2014).
Many of these test should be done every five years, and does not require much to do. If someone does have Colon Cancer they are treated based on the stage of cancer. In Stage 0 the usually treatment is a polypectomy: removal of the polyp through a colonoscopy.
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Colon cancer can develop and any age, but the risk of developing it increases with age. Figure 2 is a graph that shows the percent of new cases of Colon cancer between different ages. Also studies show that African Americans have the highest incidence of Colon Cancer in the U.S. Being overweight can increase the chances of developing Colon cancer as well. There are some lifestyle choices that can affect the risk of developing Colon Cancer. For example, diets high in red and processed meats, cooking meats at high temperatures creates chemicals linked to colon cancer, lack of physical activity, smoking, and heavy alcohol use. People with type II diabetes may also have an increased risk of developing colon cancer as well as people with an history of inflammatory bowel disease (Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 2001). People can inherit genes that elevate Colon Cancer risks as well as having shared environmental factors. The most common inherited syndromes corresponding with colorectal cancer are Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Hereditary non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome (Mayo Clinic 2013). A change in the APC gene causes FAP. APC is a tumor suppressor gene that generally regulates cell growth; this mutation prevents ACP from stopping cell growth (American Cancer Society, 2014).HNPCC is caused by mutations in genes that help cell repair in DNA, MLH1,

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