Summary: Black Intellectual Resistance Tactics

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Black Intellectual Resistance Tactics in Brazil
The protest and resistance tactics employed by black thinkers in Brazil, during the early to late 20th century, took on many forms. In order to investigate the dynamic nature of black resistance, I will focus on responses to two popular ideologies that appear at different points in the century Alberto investigates. The two ideas are scientific racism, and idea of racial mixture. In Terms of Inclusion: Black Intellectuals in Twentieth-Century Brazil, Paulina Alberto is able to convey the dynamic nature of popular ideologies, which encouraged black thinkers to conform and endorse the idea of racial harmony. Furthermore, she is able to show that despite opposition from those who espouse these ideologies,
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A way in which scientific racism was denounced in the press, while simultaneously appealing to the emerging idea of racial fraternity was through embracing the idea of the Mae Preta. The idea to construct a commemorative figure honoring black wet-nurses was popularized in Rio de Janeiro as well as Sao Paulo. In looking at these two cities, both worked to reformulate the white interpretations of the Mae Preta, and to define black inclusion on differing terms. In Rio de Janeiro, the Mae Preta was viewed as symbolic of the racial mixture of Brazil. In Rio, a modernist sensibility was taking over that supported the rich diverse history and contributions of differing ethnicities, particularly African, and embraced the mestico view of Brazilian identity. In Sao Paulo, the black …show more content…
For example, in Salvador, the idea of racial mixture was shunned in favor of, increasing the visibility of cultural contributions, primarily African. This unique interpretation of racial identity allowed for Salvador to situate itself as Brazil’s champion of pure and unmixed African culture. This positioning was facilitated greatly by the rejection of the Paulistano sentiments that wished to dissociate blacks with Africa. By embracing African contributions, Bahians put forth their own sense of racial identity. One such contribution that is intricately woven into the fabric of Bahian identity is the importance given to Candomble. Candomble is an Afro-Brazilian religion that was popular in Salvador. Candomble leaders worked to construct the images of legitimacy and respectability that academics helped publicize. In the face of religious repression and oppression, these black thinkers utilized the social tools they had access to, in order to alleviate the state sponsored attacks they faced. One example of subverting state sponsored oppression was to offer ceremonial titles to elite white males in society, “who could not only provide financial support but also could use their social influence to protect the terreiro.” This utilization of whites to facilitate the protection of African

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