Implications Of The Regenerative Capabilities Of Dental Stem Cells

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Regenerative Capabilities of Dental Stem Cells
Introduction – state hypothesis or problem and its scope (<1 page) Regenerative medicine aims to restore or establish normal function by replacing or regenerating human cells, tissue, or organs (Dunnill). Cell-based therapies are integral in regenerative medicine for the inherent ability of stem cells (SCs) to differentiate into specific cell types (Sedgley & Botero). SCs can be isolated during embryogenesis (embryonic SCs), or in postnatal tissues, and they present two distinctive characteristics: the ability to continuously self-renew and the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Embryonic SCs are of particular interest because they have such properties as the ability to differentiate
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Scaffolds are three-dimensional templates mimicking the extracellular matrix; growth factors stimulate cells to migrate, proliferate and differentiate; and cells provide machinery for the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and tissue regeneration (Scheller). Cell-based therapies are integral in regenerative medicine for the inherent ability of stem cells (SCs) to differentiate into specific cell types (Sedgley & Botero). Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated embryonic or adult cells that often are defined by their ability to divide indefinitely (Fischbach). Thomson and collegues first reported human embryonic stem cell lines in 1998 (Thomson). They are found in specific niches where the regulation of stem cell proliferation, survival, migration, fate, and aging occur (Fuchs) (Kerkis). Embryonic SCs are isolated from the blastocyst during embryonic development and give rise to the ectrodemal, endodermal, and mesodermal germ layers. For example, Thomson and collegues were able to culture several types of mature cells including nerve cells, muscle cells, bone cells, and pancreatic islet cells (Thomson). Whether cells undergo prolonged self-renewal or differentiation depends on intrinsic signals modulated by extrinsic factors in the stem cell niche (Morrison). However ethical debates threaten to limit embryonic stem cell research (Fischbach, …show more content…
Dental follicle progenitor cells (DFPCs) are stem cells extracted from dental follicle surrounding tooth germ in early tooth formation stages (Silverio, wnt/beta-catenin). These tissues are undifferentiated lineage committed progenitor cells for cementoblasts (Handa, progenitor cells from dental follicle are able) (Handa, cementum matrix formation in vivo), periodontal ligament cells, and osteoblasts (Honda, stem cells isolated from human dental follicles) (Morsczeck). They are also known to be differentiated into adipocyte, chondrocyte, and neuronal cells (Saito, tooth-derived stem cells). Also surface markers compatible with those of fibroblasts were identified in human dental follicle tissues, suggesting the presence of immature periodontal ligament fibroblasts (Angiero). Because DFPCs come from developing tissue, it is considered that they might exhibit a greater plasticity than other DSCs (Volponi). In comparison to SHED cells, DFPCs differentially express neuronal cells when grown under the same culture conditions (Morsczeck, comparison of human dental follicle

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