Female Genital Motimilation Paper

2110 Words 9 Pages
More than 100 million women are being exposed to harmful practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) (Erskine, 2014, p. 1). FGM affects women physically and psychologically. It only rids women of their freedom and puts fear to many. It is universally known as a breach of human rights of girls and women. FGM is rooted in culture, some believe it is done for religious reasons, however, there is no evidence in religious texts.

FGM involves the cutting of a female’s external genitals (World Health Organization [WHO], 2016). FGM can be classified into four types. It is a common poor practice that provides no known health benefits. FGM is practiced in communities around the world and its usage varies between countries.

Female genital mutilation
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The country has attempted to achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals 3, 4 and 5. Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality, Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health (Millenium Project, 2006). However, due to unfortunate reproductive outcomes it has resulted in poor progress (Lawani, Onyebuchi, Iyoke & Okeke, 2014, p. 128).

Such unfortunate outcomes examples are early neonatal deaths and perinatal deaths (fresh stillbirths) associated with FGM (Lawani et al., 2014, p. 128). Although FGM and the medicalization of FGM by doctors have been strongly discouraged by WHO, studies in Nigeria have shown that medical doctors conduct 34.5% of FGM procedures (Lawani et al., 2014, p. 128). The medicalization of the practice by doctors has added to the continuation of FGM therefore preventing the reduction of the prevalence and elimination of
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373). However, it is believed that at least half of the country’s population is living in severe poverty (Edoumiekumo, Karimo, & Tombofa, 2014, p. 1). In 2015, according to Africa Check, out of the 73.5 million people in Nigeria’s labour force, 7.5% are unemployed.

Poverty is one of the many reasons why Nigeria has the largest number of children out of school (A World at School, n. d.). A large percentage of adults in the country (39%) are illiterate. Poverty stricken children are starving, which results to the decrease in their ability to engage in primary education and illiteracy, which then leads to difficulty in employment. Also, because of discrimination, 34% of girls are not allowed to attend school (Tyer-Viola, & Cesario, 2010).

The prevalence rate of FGM in Nigeria among adult females is 41% (Okeke et al., 2012, p. 70). It showed in a study that mothers who had no formal educational background had an increased chance that their infant daughters would undergo FGM than mothers with a formal educational background (Ashimi et al., 2015, p. 4). Also, the study revealed that infants with unemployed mothers were more prone to experience FGM. Maternal education has been revealed to be the prime source of child mortality associated with FGM (Ashimi et al., 2015, p.

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