The Theme Of Alienation In Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis

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“Metamorphosis” is a novella written by Franz Kafka and published in 1915. It is about a story of Gregor Samsa, the protagonist, who awakes one morning from a dream and finds himself transformed into a gigantic insect. “Metamorphosis” is divided into three chapters: the first chapter is about the transformation and reaction of Gregor, the second chapter is about the family tries to accommodate him after his transformation and the final chapter is about the family ignores his existence until his death. The aim of this paper is to explore how Theories of Identity and concepts of Alienation lead to a deeper understanding of the story “Metamorphosis”.


Firstly, the story demonstrates Gregor’s struggle in searching his own
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The concept of alienation is defined as a phenomenon in social relationships reflected by a low degree of common values or integration and a high degree of isolation or distance between a person and a group of people in community (Ankony, 1999). Kafka dehumanizes Gregor through his loss of human communication. As can be seen from the story, his voice changes into an incomprehensible dialect after his transformation. The words he enunciated are not understandable for his parents and the chief clerk. He tries to explain them why he is unable to work, but it is unsuccessful due to his new physical state. He cannot expresses his internal thought, feeling and emotion and thus feel alienated. Gregor does not have connection and communication with people. As can be seen from his father, Mr. Samsa, he pushes him away and locks him in a room to prevent all his interactions with people after he realizes Gregor’s metamorphosis. This shows that the family does not concern his life in an insect form. They isolate him, leaves him alone that led him to feel loneliness and depression. Therefore, loss of human communication demonstrates his dehumanization which distant him from people and ultimately leads to his

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