Hydrocephalus Case Study

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In this MRI T-2 Weighted image, the red arrow indicates that there is an excess of Cerebral Spinal Fluid in the intracranial cavity. A condition known as Hydrocephalus, meaning (water in the brain), is caused by an excess of CSF in the intracranial cavity (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 155). Hydrocephalus can result from an excess of CSF production, obstruction of flow at any point in the ventricles or subarachnoid space, or a decrease in reabsorption via arachnoid granulations (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 155). Excess CSF production as the cause of hydrocephalus is very rare and is only seen in cases of certain tumors, such as choroid plexus papilloma (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 156). A more common cause of hydrocephalus is produced by the obstruction of the ventricular systems by tumors, masses, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and congenital …show more content…
Besides, the obstruction can also occur outside of the ventricles in the subarachnoid space as a result of debris or adhesions from a prior hemorrhage, infection, or inflammation (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 156). A decrease in CSF absorption can also cause hydrocephalus when arachnoid granulations are damaged or clogged, but this can be hard to distinguish from obstruction of CSF flow due to similar causes like prior hemorrhage, infection, or inflammation (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 156). For this reason, hydrocephalus is often separated into two categories: communicating hydrocephalus which can be caused by impaired CSF reabsorption, obstruction of flow to subarachnoid space, or by CSF overproduction and noncommunicating hydrocephalus which is due by an obstruction of flow within the ventricular system (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 156). Signs and symptoms include headaches, nausea, vomiting, cognitive impairment, and sixth nerve palsies (Blumenfeld, 2010 p. 156). Besides, patients who have hydrocephalus may present with an unsteady magnetic gait (feet barely leaving the floor) and incontinence (involuntary control of urine and bowel movements) (Blumenfeld,

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