Hughes Wilson's Impact Of Military Intelligence

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Register to read the introduction… It is an example of how technical and vital military history is, and if not used correctly can single handedly determine the outcome of a battle. Hughes- Wilson's perspective of the event is radical in that he believes the failure to fend off the Japanese on this occasion implanted America firmly in the war in the Pacific, eventually leading to the horror that was Hiroshima and to "the new dominance of the USA confirmed four years later". Thus speculation reappears about how military intelligence shaped the world in contemporary times. The reasoning behind the failure at Pearl Harbour is simple; the USA was isolationist before the war and had minimal experience spying on foreigners or gathering international information. After the great depression, the USA was in a state of economic recovery and looking into other countries affairs was not their main concern. In fact, unlike Britain with her SIS or Germany's Abwehr, the USA completely lacked a national intelligence service. Hughes-Wilson parallels American code breaking of Japanese's most secret cyphers to Bletchley Park yet also denotes how even though Japanese traffic was readable, the intelligence organizations were divided and information wasn't shared competently within a solidified command structure; "allow their sigint units to grow in a fragmented and uncoordinated fashion and so weaken their code-breaking efforts". Pearl Harbour on the whole exposed how weaknesses in the decision making processes and lack of an organizational configuration overpowered the expediency of military intelligence, and fundamentally nullified the …show more content…
But, replicating the debacle at Pearl Harbour, Russia was invaded by Germany, and Operation Barbarossa forced the Russians to retreat to Moscow. This intelligence shambles was not because of conflicting commands but instead, due to the errors of Stalin. He disregarded the notion that Germany would invade even with clear evidence of such an attack presented before him; "no less than ninety separate, unequivocal warnings of an impending attack on the Soviet Union were passed to Stalin." A vast web of spies and informants within an intelligence community is useless without a directive that acknowledges the information and reacts to it accordingly. These events transpired because of the blindness of power; where the authoritarian has to have everyone comply with his standards and when everything suits him. Under delusions of grandeur they assume nobody is capable of tricking them. A stable and structured hierarchy is necessary in military intelligence if it is to sustain and achieve its desired objectives. Disregard in this instance not only has territorial consequences but lack of mobilization of the army costs copious amounts of lives; "Stalin's fatal misinterpretation and denial of the clear intelligence he was given was to cost the Soviet Union 20 million dead, 70,000 cities, towns and villages laid waste, and changed the map of the world forever." Stephan in his article looks at Soviet intelligence from another perspective. He portrays how Soviet intelligence services were deployed to keep the army in check and to combat deserters, so that Stalin had control over the army and the war effort beneath his communist regime. At the core of Soviet intelligence were internal motives "used as a vitally important instrument of repression". It was unique in its methodology of control as a means to prevent destabilization within the

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