Hodgkin Lymphoma Essay
Hodgkin 's lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin 's disease) is a cancer that develops in the lymphatic system called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infection. All other lymphomas are classified as non-Hodgkin 's lymphoma. Hodgkin 's disease is distinguished by the presence of large abnormal cells, called Reed-Sternberg cells. The disease is less common than non-Hodgkin 's lymphoma (Simon, 2013).
Hodgkin 's lymphoma affects approximately 9,000 new patients in the United States each year. Notably, there is an increased incidence in young adults as well as in patients 55 years and older. There is no clearly defined risk factors for the development of the disease, and the cause …show more content…
The early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma often do not cause any symptoms. When they do occur, a common early sign of Hodgkin lymphoma is painless swelling of one or more lymph nodes, usually in the neck. Additional Hodgkin lymphoma signs may include: swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarms, or groin, intermittent fevers, drenching night sweats, feeling tired all the time, unexplained weight loss, decreased appetite, generalized itching, abdominal pain or swelling, feeling of fullness, coughing, shortness of breath, chest discomfort (Cancer Treatment Centers of America 2015). Hodgkin 's disease is considered one of the most curable forms of cancer, especially if it is diagnosed and treated early. An accurate assessment of the stage of disease in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is critical for the selection of the appropriate therapy. The staging system for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is based on whether the involved lymph nodes are on one or both sides of the diaphragm, the number of involved sites, whether the sites of involvement are bulky, whether there is contiguous extranodal involvement or disseminated extranodal disease, and whether typical systemic symptoms are present (Ansell, 2012). In addition to using Roman numerals I-IV to rate the extent and spread of the disease, Hodgkin lymphoma staging also involves assigning the letters "A" and "B" to each stage. The letters refer to whether or not certain symptoms are present (Cancer Treatment Centers of America