History of the Us Court System Essay

1540 Words Apr 6th, 2012 7 Pages
History of the United States Court System

Abstract When Congress first met on March 4, 1789, one of the first items of business was to fulfill the requirements of Article III, section 1, of the Constitution. Article III, section 1, provides that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." The First Congress responded by enacting the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established 13 district courts in major cities, three circuit courts, and a Supreme Court composed of a Chief Justice and five Associate Justices (Library of Congress).

History of the United States Court System

The Judiciary Act of 1789 was
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The Federal Court System

Federal court system made up of three levels: U.S. district courts, U.S. courts of appeal, and the U.S. Supreme court. U.S. district courts are the trial courts of the federal system and are located principally in larger cities. Federal decides only those cases over that the Constitution gives them authority. The Supreme courts only hear cases on appeal from the lower courts (United States Courts).

Made up of 92 districts, the federal district court system has at least one bench in each of the 50 states as well as one each in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. There can be more than 20 judges in each district, and as with most federal jurists, district court judges are appointed by the President and serve for life (The Federal Court System, 2004-2007).

Directly above the district courts are the United States courts of appeals, each superior to one or more district courts. Established by Congress in 1891, the court of appeals system is composed of 11 judicial circuits throughout the 50 states plus one in the District of Columbia. There are between 6-27 judges in each circuit. In addition to hearing appeals from their respective district courts, the courts of appeals have original jurisdiction in cases involving a challenge to an order of a federal regulatory agency, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (The Federal Court System, 2004-2007).

The highest court in the federal

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